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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a gene for collagen. As bones develop, collagen forms a scaffold for deposition of mineralized bone tissue. In children with OI, the scaffold forms improperly, causing them to be born with multiple fractures in their fragile bones and to require many corrective surgeries. Table 1 and Table 2 show the results of an experimental test of a new drug. Treated children with OI, all less than 2 years old, were compared to similarly affected children of the same age who were not treated with the drug.

TABLE 1Effect of Drug on Bone Properties in Children with OI

Vertebral Area, in cm2
Treated Child (Before Treatment) (After Treatment) Fractures Per Year
1 14.7 16.7 1
2 15.5 16.9 1
3 16.7 16.5 6
4 17.3 11.8 0
5 13.6 14.6 6
6 19.3 15.6 1
7 15.3 15.9 0
8 19.9 13.0 4
9 10.5 13.4 4
Mean 11.4 14.9 2.6

TABLE 2Bone Properties in Children with OI Who Received No Drug Treatment

Vertebral Area, in cm2
Control Child (Initial) (Final) Fractures Per Year
1 18.2 13.7 4
2 16.5 12.9 7
3 16.4 11.3 8
4 13.5 17.7 5
5 16.2 16.1 8
6 18.9 17.0 6
Mean 16.6 13.1 6.3

An increase in the vertebral area during the 12-month period of the study indicates bone growth. How many of the treated children showed an increase?

Summary Introduction

To review:

The effect of a certain drug for an increase in the vertebral area among children having osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) causing bone growth in those children during a 12-month study.

Introduction:

As the name suggests, osteogenesis is a disorder of the bones in the human body due to gene mutation. Collagen is a protein that helps in making the bones strong, which are somehow affected by the defective genes, causing osteogenesis. The disease may be mild to severe in intensity, which means fewer to many bone-fractures per year.

Explanation

An increase in the vertebral area during the 12-month period of the study indicates bone growth as per the data is shown below:

An experiment was conducted in which few selected children with OI (osteoge...

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