Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a gene for collagen. As bones develop, collagen forms a scaffold for deposition of mineralized bone tissue. In children with OI, the scaffold forms improperly, causing them to be born with multiple fractures in their fragile bones and to require many corrective surgeries. Table 1 and Table 2 show the results of an experimental test of a new drug. Treated children with OI, all less than 2 years old, were compared to similarly affected children of the same age who were not treated with the drug.

TABLE 1 Effect of Drug on Bone Properties in Children with OI

Vertebral Area, in cm2
Treated Child (Before Treatment) (After Treatment) Fractures Per Year
1 14.7 16.7 1
2 15.5 16.9 1
3 16.7 16.5 6
4 17.3 11.8 0
5 13.6 14.6 6
6 19.3 15.6 1
7 15.3 15.9 0
8 19.9 13.0 4
9 10.5 13.4 4
Mean 11.4 14.9 2.6

TABLE 2 Bone Properties in Children with OI Who Received No Drug Treatment

Vertebral Area, in cm2
Control Child (Initial) (Final) Fractures Per Year
1 18.2 13.7 4
2 16.5 12.9 7
3 16.4 11.3 8
4 13.5 17.7 5
5 16.2 16.1 8
6 18.9 17.0 6
Mean 16.6 13.1 6.3

Do the results shown support the hypothesis that giving young children who have OI this drug, which slows bone breakdown, can increase bone growth and reduce fractures?

Summary Introduction

To review:

Based on a hypothesis, 12-month research was conducted on children having osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).


Osteogenesis is a genetic disorder and is found in newborn babies also. People or children suffering from OI have their scaffolding weakened and thus, become prone to bone damage. Based on the level of intensity of the disease, any child or adult may be prone to bone fractures ranging from four to five to hundreds of fractures per year. However, this disease can respond to certain drug treatments and the damage/breakage of the bones can be slowed down causing a reduced number of fractures per year.


Results of the experiment conducted on children suffering from the disease OI in order to observe the response to drug treatment for a period of 12 months indicates bone growth as per the data is given below:

An experiment was conducted for a period of 12 months in which few selected children with OI were observed for an increase in bone growth:

(i)With drug-treatment. As per Table 1, there are 5 out of 9 (55.6%) children that showed an increase in the vertebral area after being given the prescribed dose of the drug...

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