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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

The Mediterranean shrub Hormathophyllaspinosa loses as much as 80% of its flowers and fruits to herbivorous mammals each year, and biologists interpret the spines on its flowering stems as an antiherbivoreadaptation. Jose M. Gomez and Regino Zamora of the University of Granada, Spain, conducted an exclosure experiment in which they used fences to protect some shrubs from feeding by herbivores and left other shrubs unprotected as controls. The accompanying graph illustrates the density of thorns on the experimental and control groups over a period of two years. How did the protected shrubs respond to the experimental reduction of feeding on the flowers and fruits? How did the unprotected shrubs respond to the control treatment? What benefits would unprotected shrubs derive from their response?

Chapter 53, Problem 1ITD, The Mediterranean shrub Hormathophyllaspinosa loses as much as 80% of its flowers and fruits to

Source: J. M. Gomez and R. Zamora. 2002. Thorns as induced mechanical defense in a long-lived shrub (Hormathophyllaspinosa, Cruciferae). Ecology 83(4):885–890. Ecology by Ecological Society of America. Copyright 2002. Reproduced with permission of Ecological Society of America in the format Textbook via Copyright Clearance Center.

Summary Introduction

To review:

The response of protected shrubs of Hormathophylla spinosa to evaluate the experimental reduction of feeding on flowers and fruits. The response of unprotected shrubs to control treatment and benefits of that unprotected shrubs, which can derive from their response.

Introduction:

The Mediterranean shrub Hormathophylla spinosa is eaten by most of the herbivore mammals and loses its 80% flowers and fruits each year due to this feeding behavior of herbivores. It also has an antiherbivore adaptation on its flowering stems called spines.

Explanation

The fences were used to protect some shrubs from feeding by herbivores in the exclosure experiment conducted and other shrubs were left unprotected as control groups. The graph shown below illustrates the density of thorns on experimental and control groups for a period of two years:

Plants and animals develop many types of adaptations, which they use for defense or to catch their prey. These adaptations can be morphological, behavioral, or physiological. The Mediterranean shrub Hormathophylla spinosa has an antiherbivore adaptation called spines to prevent itself from feeding by herbivore animals...

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