What is the energy gap and energy requirement?

In solid-state physics, the energy gap is the range of energy in a solid-state where there is no electron in the region, that is, the range where the density of the states decreases.
In condensed-matter physics, the energy gap is the spectral gap, a term that does not need to be determined by electrons.
The development of energy-efficient construction is a necessary response to current trends in the construction industry. Energy-efficient construction means the development of energy technologies and other measures that aim at facilitating energy use systems at all stages of construction.


The bandgap is also known as the energy gap or power gap. It is an energy range where no electronic state can exist, in solids. The bandgap represents the minimum energy required to activate the electron to the position in the conduction band where it can participate in the operation. The low energy level is the valence band. So, if there is a gap between this level and the high energy level band, energy should be the input for the electrons to be released. The size and presence of this bandgap allows one to visualize or conceptualize the differences between materials. These distances can be seen in drawings known as band diagrams.

When an energy gap exists in the property structure of a material, it is called a bandgap. The actual structures of semiconductors are largely determined by their bandgaps, also by insulators, and metal bandgaps. Thus, any potential bandgap can control their electronic structures.

A sketch of the bandgap between valence band and conduction band in insulators and semiconductors.
CC BY 1.0 | Image Credits: https://commons.wikimedia.org | Pieter Kuiper

Bandgap sizes

The size of this bandgap gives the building materials some of their unique properties. In the insulators, the electrons of the valence band are separated by a large belt or bandgap from the conductor or conduction band. This means that there is a large “restricted” power gap that prevents electrons from the valence band from jumping onto the conduction band and participating in the conduction. This explains why insulators do not work well with electricity.

In the conductor, the valence band vibrates with the conduction band. This vibration causes the electrons in the valence band to be free to travel to the conduction band and participate in the conduction. Since, it is not a complete scattering, only a fraction of the valence electrons can move in objects, but this is enough to conduct electricity.

In semiconductors, the bandgap is small enough to be blocked by some form of interest, probably from the Sun in the case of photovoltaic cells. The gap is a specific "medium" size of the conductor or protection. In this model, a limited number of electrons can reach the conduction band and conduct small amounts of electricity. The excitation of this electron also allows additional driving processes to occur due to the electron-hole left behind. The electrons emanating from a nearby atom can reside in this space, creating the reaction of a series of holes and the movement of electrons that create current energy. A small amount of doping material can greatly increase the processing of this information.


For superconductors, the bandgap is a compressed density region surrounding the Fermi power supply, and the magnitude of the power gap is much smaller than the power structure of the band structure. The superconducting power gap is a crucial factor in the theoretical information of superconductivity and is prominent in the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) view. Here, the magnitude of the power gap indicates the energy gain of the two electrons in the formation of the Cooper pair. If the superconducting material cools down from its metallic state (at higher temperatures) to the superconducting state, then the superconducting energy gap does not exceed the critical temperature, and it begins to open when it enters the superconducting state, and expands in cooling.

BCS theory predicts that the magnitude of the superconducting power gap of normal superconductors is at zero temperature and their critical temperature. The magnitude of the power gap depends on the temperature, the gap between the Fermi power level, and the next electronic power level available in the system because the superconductor is highly dependent on the internal magnetic field of the superconductor. For this reason, it is necessary to specify the internal magnetic field of the superconductor to utter corresponding words about it.

Energy efficiency approach

One of the most effective directions is the construction of "green" structures that use zero power. These construction sites can be considered as energy-efficient buildings, capable of generating energy locally from renewable energy sources and using them at the same rate throughout the year. If the amount of energy produced is less than that used, this structure is called a building that uses almost zero energy. In addition, choosing a model of thermal comfort in the room to establish the appropriate humidity conditions has a significant effect on the energy efficiency of buildings with the use of zero energy.

The "green roof" is the most crucial part of the "green building" heat cover. It is a multi-layered enclosure that includes a cover in the form of reinforced concrete slab, waterproofing carpet, thermal insulation of their extruded foam polystyrene plates, and a separate layer of geotextile. Drain layers and filters, soil layer, and plant layer.

Roof planting can be divided into deep and wide, depending on the type of plant layer. Intensive land planning is based on the use of tall plants with an improved root system. We have a rooftop garden, which requires a 30-foot [1 meter] layer of soil and the permanent care of farmers. On the other hand, a pitched roof does not require formal care, as it requires a thin layer of soil or compost for plowing the roof.

Energy efficiency standards

Many countries have rating systems that assess environmental cleanliness and sustainability by building environmentally friendly conditions. As a rule, the following methods are used: good choice of land structure, transport pollution level, quality of indoor microclimate, quality of building materials, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy and water efficiency. It is noteworthy that the integrated solution of environmental, sanitary, and epidemiological needs and energy, reducing environmental risks is a very important function in the field of investment and construction.
Two major rating systems cover a large number of indicators, namely British BREEAM, and the U.S. LEED. Despite the proven success of these two measurement systems, their improved standards has to be adapted to the Russian climate and environment. The given work was done in the creation of the Russian system for measuring environmental standards "Green Standards".

First, it is necessary to build a culture of resource-saving and increase consumer awareness of energy resources in terms of available methods and technologies to improve energy efficiency in the construction and operation of buildings. Secondly, educational programs training professionals in the construction industry should also focus on environmental testing. Third, tax breaks can be a great way to promote the use of energy-saving technologies in the construction, operation, or reconstruction of construction sites. Undoubtedly, the continuous development of technologies that increase energy efficiency in construction requires significant financial resources. However, the implementation of these measures at the state level will contribute to improving energy efficiency in the country's construction industry.

Context and Applications

This topic is important for professional exams in both undergraduate and graduate courses like:

  • Bachelors in Technology in Civil Engineering
  • Masters in Technology in Civil Engineering

Practice Problems

Q1 Which of the following materials have almost an empty conduction band and filled valence band with very narrow energy gap between them?

a) Energy bandgap

b) Semiconductor

c) Superconductors

d) Energy band

Answer- b

Explanation- Semiconductors probably have an empty drive or conduction band and a valence band filled with a very small power gap between the steering or conduction band and the valence band.

Q2. Which of the following is arranged in the correct ascending order bandgap energy levels?

a) Graphite, Silicon, Diamond

b) Silicon, Graphite, Diamond

c) Diamond, Silicon, Graphite

d) Graphite, Diamond, Silicon

Answer- a

Explanation- Graphite, Silicon, Diamond is the correct order of ascending bandgap energy levels.

Q3. What kind of energy level bands do insulators have?

a) Bandgap

b) Empty valence band

c) Full valence band

d) Full conduction band

Answer- c

Explanation- Insulators have a full valence band.

Q4. Which band of electrons have more energy levels than electrons in the valence band?

a) Energy levels

b) Valence band

c) Bandgap

d) Conduction band

Answer- d

Explanation- Electrons in the conduction band have more energy than electrons in the valence band.

Q5. Which material has an overlapping energy gap between the valence band and the conduction band?

a) Conductors

b) Bandgaps 

c) Insulators

d) Semiconductors

Answer- a

Explanation- Conductors have an overlapping energy gap between the valence band and the conduction band.

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