What are layout and design?
The layout is the process of marking all the building components on the land from the prepared plan. The layout of construction includes transferring the whole plan of foundations, boundaries of the structure, centerline of the wall, and all other important structural parts on the ground along with the length and width so that the components of buildings can be excavated properly. Designing is the process of establishing the concept of the building on paper in a properly engineered manner.
Layouting is an important and initial step in any construction project. The layout sets up the orientation, level, and angle of the structures. Hence, a proper layout is necessary for the buildings to be constructed properly. Also, any error in layout can consume a lot of money and time to make changes. To prepare a layout of buildings, the following steps need to be followed-
- Initial setup
- Marking Temporary Benchmark
- Marking Baseline
- Marking Horizontal control
- Marking Vertical control
- Layouting of building, trenches, and framed structures
The initial setup of the layout includes clearing all the grasses, debris, and other unwanted things from the land.
Marking Temporary Benchmark (TBM)
A temporary benchmark is a fixed point marked on the site which has a known elevation. The temporary benchmark is useful for marking levels of required components during surveys and constructions. The elevation of a temporary benchmark is marked by shifting the elevations with respect to the nearby fundamental or permanent benchmark. Once, the temporary benchmark is marked, a peg or steel angle is driven into the point, or the place is marked using paint.
All the layout work of a building is done with respect to the baseline. A baseline is a straight line created for reference on a site. The corners of a building are first located with respect to the baseline and then the other components are marked.
Marking horizontal control
Horizontal controls are the control points that have known coordinates. The horizontal controls are used to layout other points of a layout. The horizontal controls are also used to denote the latitude, longitude, easting, and northing locations. Numerous horizontal controls should be marked on a plan for a more precise layout of a building. The horizontal controls are marked during the leveling phase using a theodolite, total station, dumpy level, or any similar surveying instrument.
Marking vertical control
Vertical controls are the design points that also have known coordinates. The vertical controls are used to denote the elevations and depressions of various points on the site. The vertical controls are also marked during the leveling phase using surveying instruments.
Layouting of building, trenches, and framed structures
For making the layout of a building, first, one corner point is marked. Using theodolite or any similar surveying instrument and optical squares, the next points are marked at an angle of 90 degrees. Ranging rods are used to keep the points in a straight line. Once, all the points are marked, outlines joining the points are marked using dry lime powder. For making the layout of trenches, the position of trench, width, and length of the trench are marked as per the drawings. After the trenches are marked, the outlines are marked using dry lime powder and timber pegs are driven in the center. In the case of an irregular-shaped building, layouting is done in rectangular shape first and then the deductions and alterations are done to obtain the desired layout. In the case of framed structures, the grid is established using the offsets from the baseline and theodolite. Once the grid is obtained, each intersection of the grid is marked using pegs.
The designing of the building is done as per the recommendations of the National Building Code. The designing of the building is a necessary parameter upon which the sustainability of the whole building depends. Hence, it is necessary to design all the structural members of a building properly. Regarding buildings, residential buildings and office buildings are built on a large scale. The design of the building should be done in such a way that the construction should be economical, the client's requirements are satisfied, the norms of standards are satisfied, and environmental sustainability is maintained. Most importantly, the design should be such that the building should be able to sustain the upcoming loads and stay firm and durable.
Planning and designing of buildings
According to the National Building Code, the buildings are planned as per the proper aspect and prospect. In the case of kitchens, the kitchen should have provision for washing utensils and a proper drainage facility. The floors of the kitchen should be made of impermeable material. In the case of bathrooms, the bathrooms having non-waterproofed flooring, another bathroom should be above one bathroom or any other washing place. All the bathrooms should have ventilations. It is necessary to provide a septic tank in absence of a sewage outlet. In the case of the staircase, the staircase should be constructed with one side adjacent to the external wall and must be enclosed. In the case of stairs in the interior of the building, the stairs should be constructed using non-combustible material. The minimum height, width, rise, and trend should be constructed as prescribed by the National Building Code. Proper space should be left from the front, back, and sides of the building sides as per the norms. All other rooms of the building should be designed as per the norms and convenience.
Designing structural members like beams, columns, slabs, staircases, footings, and other necessary components of both RCC as well as Steel structures should be done as per the standards. The dead loads, live loads, wind loads, and all other types of loads for the designs should be considered as prescribed in the code ASCE 7 titled "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures". A proper factor of safety should be considered while designing the members.
Context and Applications
The layout and design is useful for the students undergoing the following courses-
- Bachelors in Technology (Civil Engineering)
- Masters in Technology (Civil Engineering)
- Masters in Technology (Structural Engineering)
- Masters in Science (Construction Management)
1. Which of the following is the process of marking all the building components on the land from the prepared plan?
Answer: Option a
Explanation: Layout is the process of marking all the building components on the land from the prepared plan.
2. Which of the following is the process of establishing the concept of the building on paper in a properly engineered manner?
Answer: Option b
Explanation: Design is the process of establishing the concept of the building on paper in a properly engineered manner.
3. Which of the following are used to denote the latitude, longitude, easting, and northing locations?
- Horizontal controls
- Vertical controls
- Temporary Benchmarks
Answer: Option a
Explanation: Horizontal controls are used to denote the latitude, longitude, easting, and northing locations.
4. Which of the following are used to keep the points in a straight line during surveying?
- Ranging rods
- Optical squares
Answer: Option c
Explanation: Ranging rods are used to keep the points in a straight line.
5. Which of the following code is titled "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures"?
- ASCE 17
- ASCE 20
- ASCE 25
- ASCE 7
Answer: Option d
Explanation: The code ASCE 7 is titled "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures".
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