What are the types of scheduling techniques?

We need to use project scheduling techniques or planning strategies in a project to align all its features so that it works seamlessly. The plan must be within the scope of the project and all its resources must be used efficiently. Given the flexibility of the project and its scope, it is difficult to plan it, but we are expected to do it because we are the ones who will be held accountable.

The plan contains all the activities included in the implementation and implementation of the project during the project timeframe. A project plan helps to prioritize the work involved in the project and complete it systematically. It also helps to select the right person for the job and the proper allocation of available resources. Managing time and adjusting the scope of a project is only possible if there is a proper schedule for the project in progress. For instance, the rolling wave scheduling, this approach aims to manage the cost and risk of project delays by identifying the best system using the available information.

Different types of scheduling techniques

Project Planning usually involves a variety of strategies, the framework of each strategy is given below.

Mathematical analysis

The Critical Path Method (CPM) and the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) are two commonly used methods by project managers. These methods are used to calculate the duration of a project using project scope.

Critical path method

Every project tree drawing has an important trail. The Critical Path Method estimates the time range required to complete a project. CPM also helps identify important activities to be included in a project. Changes in delivery time do not affect the schedule. The scope of the project and the list of tasks required to complete the project are required in implementing CPM. Next, the time taken for each activity is calculated. Then, all dependent species are identified. This helps to identify and differentiate independent variables. Finally, add a milestone to the project.

Activity-on-node diagram showing critical path schedule, along with total float and critical path drag computations.
CC BY-SA 4.0 | Image credits: https://commons.wikimedia.org | Agarcialw

Project evaluation and review technique (PERT)

PERT is a way to plan the flow of tasks in a project and measure the total time it takes to complete it. This process helps in understanding the dependence of each task on the other. To plan a project using PERT, one must define the tasks, plan them in a systematic way and define the key categories. You can calculate project times based on confidence levels:

  • A time of hope
  • The most likely time

Estimated duration and not estimates are used by PERT to calculate different time frames.

PERT chart for a project with five milestones (10 through 50) and six activities (A through F). The project has two critical paths: activities B and C, or A, D, and F – giving a minimum project time of 7 months with fast tracking. Activity E is sub-critical, and has a float of 1 month.
Image credits: https://commons.wikimedia.org | Jeremykemp

Duration compression

Long duration helps to cut the schedule if necessary. It can adjust the default schedule by making changes without changing the scope if possible, the project is running late. Two methods can be used: fast or rapid tracking and crash.

Fast tracking

Immediate tracking is another way to use CPM. Immediate tracking finds ways to speed up the process where a project is implemented by doing multiple tasks at once or by overlapping multiple tasks with each other. CPM helps us identify activities that can be used to speed up project speed, So that project can be done in the shortest time. Although it is an attractive approach, it has its share of dangers as well. As more functions will be used simultaneously, it is more likely to make mistakes and compromise on quality.


Crash works by including the requirement of additional resources to complete a project on time. For this to happen, you need the remaining resources to find what you have. In addition, all activities cannot be performed by adding additional resources. The need to add new team members to the project and the limited diversity of activities leads to increased communication and is a fundamental reason behind it. The crash procedure can also be used by adding time, overtime payment, but should remain within the prescribed deadline. Unfortunately, this leads to increased project costs.

Resource leveling heuristics

Reducing delivery time or avoiding resource overuse by making changes to the schedule is called resource leveling heuristics. Separate tasks according to available resources, so that there is no under-utilized or overused utility. The only result of this approach is that it can increase the cost and time of the project.

Gantt chart

By tracking progress and reporting objectives, the Gantt Chart is a visual approach used in project management. It is used by project managers most of the time to get an idea about the amount of time required to complete a project. The Gantt Chart is a chart bar that represents important functions in the left sequence compared to time. It fulfills the requirement of tracking any activity taking place in a project. Each task is represented by a bar indicating the start and date of the activity, hence its length.

Scheduling algorithms

First come first served

  • It uses ready queue processes that arrive at a short-term editor.
  • removes the process from the processor only if it disconnects.
  • amazing with long processes when they finally come in.
  • bad for short processes if they are after a long process.


  • Its processes are given equal time fractions called quanta (or quantum's).
  • Alternates with one quantum.
  • If the process finishes prematurely, before its quantum expires, the next process begins immediately and acquires a full quantum.
  • In some applications, the following process can only obtain the remaining quantum component.

Shortest job first (SJF)

  • Another name for the very short Process is the following ready queue algorithm.
  • The better name may be shorter next-CPU-burst first.
  • CPU burst length is the length of time the process will continue to work if provided by the processor and not installed.
  • The shortest job first estimates the next explosive duration based on the duration of the latest CPU eruption.
  • Starts with the default burst length expected for a new process.

Non-preemptive priority algorithm

  • The processor assigned the correct order to the most important at the top of the ready queue.
  • The shortest remaining time algorithm is the most important algorithm with a value defined as the expected time.
  • It selects the value equal to the expected CPU burst time.

Importance of scheduling

A well-designed schedule helps manage items, personnel, and equipment. It also supports the project to be completed on time,  Few Advantages are as follows:

  • Provide reliable project details and keep them up-to-date.
  • Avoid production interruptions and immediate availability of blocks.
  • Analysis of the root cause as a means of remediation.
  • Document standard.
  • Allows the app's precision distribution.
  • Keep the whole process clear.
  • Reliable prediction based on current performance.

Resource planning tools can assist a project manager in resource allocation and completing a project within the allotted time. They also help prepare schedules for all future projects. Studying your team's past performance, the obstacles they faced while pursuing the project, and how those obstacles were overcome is very helpful. Planning should be an important part of project management. It not only saves time but also makes the project more organized.

Context and Applications

This topic is important for professional exams in both graduate and postgraduate studies and in particular:

  • Bachelors of Technology in Civil Engineering
  • Masters of Technology in Civil Engineering

Practice Problems

1. A schedule defined by a specific level of decision that allows for progress to be monitored and project management, is called,

  1. Project scheduling
  2. CPU scheduling method
  3. Wave scheduling method
  4. First come first served

Answer: Option a

Explanation: Project scheduling monitors project activities and their progress to ensure that delays are identified and addressed "one day at a time." There needs to be a system-defined at the decision level that allows for progress to be monitored and project management to achieve this.

2. What project planning method can be used for software development?

  1. CPU burst type
  2. CPU-bound
  3. Multiprogramming type
  4. CPM and PERT

Answer: Option d

Explanation: CPM and PERT can be used for software development.

3. ____________ determines the scope of the project.

  1. Response time
  2. Time-sharing
  3. Concept scoping
  4. Time quantum

Answer: Option c

Explanation: The entire scope of the project is determined by a concept scoping process.

4. The amount of time spent by the process from reaching the state of readiness for the first time until its completion is called-

  1. Burst time
  2. Turnaround time
  3. Round-robin specifics
  4. Response time

Answer: Option b

Explanation: The amount of time spent by the process from reaching the first state of readiness until its completion.

5. Time required by CPU to execute a process -

  1. CPU scheduling
  2. Time quantum
  3. Response time
  4. Burst time

Answer: Option d

Explanation: The time required by the CPU to process is burst time. It’s also called run time or performance time.

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