Information about Computing Concept

The computer is defined as any goal-oriented activity that requires, benefits from, or creates computing machinery. It entails the investigation and testing of algorithmic processes, as well as the creation of hardware and software. It includes scientific, engineering, mathematical, technological, and social components. Information systems, computer science, software engineering, data science, information technology, computer engineering, and cybersecurity are examples of computing fields.

Computers are programmable electronic devices that accept input, conduct mathematical and logical operations at faster speeds, and display results. Information Technology (IT), a subset of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies), makes use of computers. For corporations and other operations, computers store, send, retrieve, and manipulate data. Computers relate to the hardware, and because computers cannot start working on their own, they begin working as soon as they are given data to work with (to process). This information is subsequently saved on the computer, which then manipulates it according to the instructions it has received before returning the new information to the user.

History of Computing

The history of computing includes the use of chalk and slate, pen and paper, as well as the history of computer hardware and current computing technologies. The representation of numbers is inextricably linked to computing. However, there were mathematical conceptions that serve the objectives of civilization even before abstractions as the number appeared. One-to-one connection, comparison to a standard (used for measuring), and the 3-4-5 right triangle are among these concepts.
The abacus is said to have been invented in Babylon around 2400 BC, and it was the first known tool for computing. It was the first invention when it was used by drawing lines in the sand using pebbles. Abaci are still used as computation tools today but in a more modern style. This was the first known calculation aid, dating back 2,000 years before Greek methods.
The use of thyratrons for high-speed automatic counting of physical phenomena was first proposed in the 1931 publication "The Use of Thyratrons for High-Speed Automatic Counting of Physical Phenomena" by C. E. Wynn-Williams. The idea of employing electronics for Boolean algebraic operations was first suggested in 1938 by Claude Shannon's paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits."

A basic model of Computer

The following diagram depicts a general computer model and highlights how computer functions are similar to the processes in the information processing cycle. Input, storage, processing, and output are the four essential components of all computers.

A basic model of computer that involves input unit, output unit,  memory and storage unit and arithmetic logic unit
Computer components

Computer Hardware and Software

Hardware and software are interrelated, a computer must have both hardware and software to work effectively. This implies that one cannot exist without the other.


Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer including a central processing unit, memory, and input/output often known as the computer's equipment. Hardware devices can be classified according to how they perform on a computer. Computational logic and computer architecture are key considerations in the context of computer hardware.


Computer software, sometimes known as "software," is a collection of computer programs and related data that tells a computer what to do and how to accomplish it. The programs that direct the operation of a computer are referred to as application software (Apps) and system software (Operating System). It also includes instructions for using the software.

System Software

System software is a type of computer software that is used to operate and control computer hardware as well as to offer a foundation for running application software. System software includes commonly used development tools such as compilers, linkers, and debuggers.

Application Software

An application program, often known as an "application" or an "app," is a type of computer software that is meant to assist the user in doing specified activities. There are different types of application softwares such as office suite, media player, accounting software, graphics software and so forth. Many application programs are primarily concerned with documents. Apps can be included with the operating system software, or they can be purchased separately. System software and middleware, on the other hand, control a computer's capabilities but rarely apply them to the performance of activities that benefit the user.

Computer Network

A computer network is a set of numerous computers that are used to share resources allowance by the network nodes. The computers use communication protocols. These protocols are generated by digital connections. The system can communicate to another system by using these.

Network nodes can include servers, personal computers, networking devices, and other specialized or general-purpose hosts. These systems are identified by using the Network addresses and hostnames. Hostnames serve as easy-to-remember labels for nodes, and they are rarely modified after they are assigned. Communication protocols such as the Internet Protocol use network addresses to locate and identify nodes.

Computer Programming

Professionals and programmers use computer programming to test their knowledge and produce code that controls how a computer, software, or application interacts with the system. A computer programmer is a person who writes logic, algorithm, instruction for a particular software. Apart from this, he tests the code and software functionality that is necessary for software to perform the task properly.
Computers range from simple laptops capable of simple word processing and performing spreadsheet functions to incredibly complex supercomputers capable of processing millions of financial transactions per day. However, no computer can do anything unless a computer programmer instructs it to do so. That is what computer programming is all about.

Cyber Security

Computer science is a wide field that encompasses all aspects of computing and computers. Cyber security work as a safeguarding technology. It protects computer software and network from various digital attack. Cyber security experts rely on their in-depth knowledge of computers and networks to perform this function.

Computer scientists and cyber security professionals keep their eye on the hackers, stockholders at all times. They pay attention to details, regularly logging changes on the projects they work on. They provide logical and analytical skills. They examine problems from different scenarios and give a unique solution. The key distinction between computer scientists and cyber security experts is in terms of their principal responsibilities. Auditing security systems, putting up firewalls, evaluating networks, and reporting on data breaches may all be part of a cyber security specialist's daily routine. A computer science professional, on the other hand, might concentrate on developing new software features, database administration, or web development.

Data Science

Data science is the study of extracting useful information from structured data, non-structured data, and semi-structured data. It does not use any traditional management software tool. It uses analytical tools, a scientific concept that helps the company to take business decision. By using data science, a company makes a strategic plan to earn more profit from users. Data science is a very impactful technology in the business area. It provides operational efficiency to the firm. Data science can be used to create a new business prospect, to improve sales and marketing, and to increase productivity.

Cloud Computing Concept

The idea behind cloud computing is to use a program online via the internet. In our daily lives, we all utilize a variety of application software, such as emails, bank transactions, social media, and shopping apps. Even large corporations such as Google and Amazon have cloud environments that utilize cloud computing. Approximately 50% of US businesses use cloud services, and 60% of American IT staff and decision-makers believe the cloud is secure. Cloud computing has evolved into an on-demand technology in the last year.
Users can access their database resources via the internet from anywhere using cloud computing. There is no need to worry about the preservation and administration of physical resources.

Model of Cloud Computing

Certain services and models work behind cloud computing. These models make cloud services feasible and accessible. There are two different models:

  • Deployment Models
  • Service Models

Deployment Models

Deployment refers to how much data is to be stored in the cloud and who is going to access the infrastructure. It defines the type to access the cloud. It categorizes data based on the geographical area. There are 4 ways to access the cloud- Public cloud, Private Cloud, Community cloud, and Hybrid cloud.

Service Models

Three service model presents in cloud computing-

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  • Software as a Service (SaaS)

Impact of computing

Many assistive devices that improve human capacities, such as microprocessor-controlled prosthetic legs and automated reading programs for the blind, rely on computing. In almost every industry, computing facilitates innovation. Scientific computing has aided scientific and business innovation. Computing facilitates creativity by facilitating access to and sharing of data. Open Access and Creative Commons have made digital information more widely accessible. Scientific researchers have profited from open and curated scientific databases.

Common Mistakes

There are some common mistakes that beginner do while working on the computer. One of the most common errors that beginners make is failing to back up vital data. There are so many various methods of backing up the data these days. Make a backup of all vital data before it's too late.

When working on a document, whether offline or online, ensure that the application saves your work automatically. If the application does not automatically save the work, then the user must save it every 10-15 minutes. Everything that hasn't been saved is lost if the computer loses power, the Internet connection, or the programme crashes.

Context and Applications

This topic is significant in the professional exam for both graduate and postgraduate courses, especially for-

  • B. Tech in Computer Science
  • B. Tech in Information Technology
  • M. Tech in Virtualization and Cloud Computing
  • Cloud Security
  • Cryptograph
  • Public cloud
  • Mobile cloud computing

Practice Problems

Q1- Which model is a cloud computing model?

  1. Deployment Models
  2. Service Models
  3. Both
  4. None

Correct answer- Both

Explanation- Cloud computing contains two basic model deployment model and a service model. A cloud deployment model is characterized by where the deployment's infrastructure is located and who controls that infrastructure. Cloud computing is available in three main service models, each of which serves a particular set of corporate needs. Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is the three paradigms (IaaS).

Q2- Private cloud is a type of

  1. Deployment Models
  2. Service Models
  3. IAAS
  4. PAAS

Correct answer- Deployment Models

Explanation- A private cloud is a cloud deployment model that is exclusively for a single organization and is managed and hosted by a third-party provider, whether it is physically situated at the company's on-site data center or is managed and hosted by a third-party provider.

Q3- Basic model of computer system involve

  1. Input unit
  2. Output unit
  3. Processing unit
  4. All

Correct answer- All

Explanation- Input, storage, processing, and output are the four essential functions of all computers. IPOS stands for input, process, output, and storage. The computer receives data, processes it according to user instructions, and outputs data that can be saved in a variety of formats.

Q4- How many types of service models are available?

  1. one
  2. two
  3. three
  4. four

Correct answer- Three

Explanation- Cloud computing is available in three main service models, each of which serves a particular set of corporate needs. Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) are the three paradigms (IaaS).

Q5-  What does the COMPUTER stand for?

  1. Commonly Operative Machines Used in Technical and Educational Research
  2. Commonly Operated Machines Used in Technical and Environmental Research
  3. Commonly Oriented Machines Used in Technical and Educational Research
  4. Commonly Operated Machines Used in Technical and Educational Research

Correct answer- Commonly Operated Machines Used in Technical and Educational Research.

Explanation- A computer is an electronic device that performs calculations quickly. A COMPUTER stands for Commonly Operated Machines Used in Technical and Educational Research.

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