What is Operation? 

In mathematics and computer science, an operation is an event that is carried out to satisfy a given task. Basic operations of a computer system are input, processing, output, storage, and control.  

The most important software that runs on a computer is an operating system. It controls the memory and functions of the machine, along with all its hardware and software. Thus it helps to engage with the machine without learning how to speak the language of the computer. 

“The image that shows Block diagram of computer Operations”

While basic computers are capable of sophisticated processing, only simple mathematical operations can be carried out by the processors themselves. By executing billions of individual operations per second, CPUs perform very complex tasks. 

Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are arithmetic operations. Additionally, to perform certain tasks such as comparison of two operands or for detecting where bits are not aligned, there are sixteen possible logical (or symbolic) operators used. 

AND, OR, NOT (or AND NOT), and NEAR are Boolean operators that operate with true/false values. Equal sign (=), less-than symbol (<), and greater-than symbol (>) are used in the relational operators used for comparisons. 

Use of Computer Operations in our Daily Life

In our everyday lives, the computer plays an important role. For different reasons, we regularly use a computer.  Whether they're laptops, phones, these machines are just like electronic magic which works on five basic computer operations. They are a boon for humans when we use computers for practical purposes. 

  • For distance learning, e-commerce, music, films, and many more, people use the computer at home.  
  • In hospitals, computers are used to create a database of patients and their records of medicine and treatment. 
  • In schools and universities all over the country, we use computers. Computing technologies are essential for educating students digitally using data visualization. In a classroom, students test their imagination and creativity using computers. Online degree programs are offered by several colleges and universities.  
  • Banks use computers daily to deliver services in a faster and precise manner. They also use them to store customer data, process money deposits and withdrawal requests. Computer operations help banks in reducing infrastructure costs and improve efficiency. 

Computers, together with data availability and algorithms for machine learning, have made automation and cognitive computing very feasible. Consequently, we are now seeing progress on autonomous cars, robots, Chabot's, drones and virtual assistants, etc. Computers are used by people for their incomparable accuracy, speed, and performance. Computers help us to save money, time, and energy. Day by day, the size of the computer is continuously becoming smaller ever since the day the computer was invented, and its output capacity is growing. Input, output, storage, process, and control are the basic operations on computers. 

Operations in the computer are defined as a basic process that a computer is designed and built to perform. The most important software that runs on a computer is an operating system. It controls the memory and functions of the computer, as well as all its hardware and software. It also helps you to engage with the machine without learning how to speak the language of the computer. 

There are three primary features of an operating system 

  • Control the resources of the machine, such as central processing units, memory, printers, and disk drives, 
  • The user interface is established 
  • To execute and provide software application services. 

A logical operation is a special symbol or word linking two or more information phrases. Often, it is used to test whether a certain correlation is true or false between the words. 

Logical operations are expected in computation because they model the way data flows through electrical circuits, such as those within a CPU. Boolean operations are considered certain kinds of operations. The elements that behave according to Boolean logic in a circuit are called logic gates. 

Understanding Input and Output Operations 

Input Operations 

Computers receive the user's input. Input is a preliminary process on a computer that is carried out. Input operations are performed by the input unit. The computer can only process data fetched from the user after receiving the information. Input is the computer system's mandatory operation. The computers would have no data to operate with without the user's input. The input is made up of a command word containing an operation code, one or two operands, and also a format code. 

Through peripheral devices such as keyboards, joysticks, digital cameras, and scanners, information is inserted into the computer. Few more input devices send the input data directly to the CPU, such as scanners, and they do not require any encoding procedure. Such peripheral devices are called Direct Entry Input Devices.  

Before the information reaches the central processing unit, data entered from input devices such as keyboards need to be encoded. Indirect Entry Input Devices are considered such devices. The data from the input is stored in bit format. The computer is only able to comprehend the bit format. After the encoding is finished, the result is then decoded and displayed in an understandable human format. 

Output Operations

The output operations are carried out by the Output Devices in the computers. The output devices display information on the computer monitor, or the information is printed with the aid of a printer. The output operations comprise dialogue boxes, displaying error messages, etc. Often, the output devices store the data for future use in the computer's memory. As the user gets his/her outcome of the operations just through them, the performance operations gain a lot of importance. Speakers, Plotters, LCD projectors, etc., are a few examples of output devices. 

Storage Operation 

Data and instructions inserted into the computer must be placed anywhere inside the computer before the actual operation begins. Likewise, before it is transferred to the output device, results obtained by the computer must be stored. For further processing, the intermediate result that the computer generates must also be stored. Therefore, the role of a storage device in computers is important. 

The storage device can be external or internal based on its position, if it is inside or outside the machine. Also, classification can be done on primary storage, which works closely with the CPU, or secondary storage as a backup unit. Primary storage is also known as primary memory in computer systems are, and secondary storage is known as secondary memory or backup storage. The storage devices in the computer are RAM/ ROM, registers, magnetic disks, optical discs, cache, etc. 

Random Access Memory (RAM) is a non-permanent memory and the Read-Only Memory (ROM) ROM is a permanent memory. Other storage devices are the pen drives, Compact Disks (CD), Digital Versatile Disk (DVD), etc. 

Processing Operation 

The arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU) is the unit in the computer system responsible for the processing. The programming processes on computers is done with the help of the Central Processing Unit. The CPU is also known as a processer which has many tiny transistors. Arithmetic and logical operations are the two basic operations that the CPU does.  

Processing is defined as the process of performing calculations and comparisons. ALU is the location where the instructions are executed during the processing operations. In the ALU, all calculations and comparisons are performed. When needed, the data and instructions stored in the primary storage are transferred to it. ALU can generate intermediate results and store them in the memory, which is then transferred back to the ALU for final processing. The final results are sent to the storage units of ALU after completion of processing. 

Controlling Operations 

The monitoring functions are carried out by the control unit, which is an integral part of the central processing unit. The ALU and output unit do not know what to do with the results and when the outcome should be displayed.  

The Control Unit can maintain order and control the operations of the entire system by selecting, interning, and seeing the program execution. Control Unit does not do the direct data analysis, but it is known as a central nervous system that manages and coordinates the entire system structure. 

As applications become more complex and the amount of data collected grows, issues such as processor speed, data search, and multiple requests can arise. Data structures are used to address these issues. Data is structured into a data structure such that not all objects must be searched and required data can be easily found. 

Common Mistakes 

Students must remember,  

  • As the computer operates on the given instructions, if the given input is wrong, or if it is programmed wrongly, the user will not get the desired output. 
  • Computers performing complex operations need very expensive and extremely high configuration systems. 
  • Depending on the operating system (OS), a process can consist of several execution threads that execute instructions simultaneously. 
  • Booting is a beginning process that, when turned on, begins a computer's operating system. The initial set of operations the machine executes when it is turned on is a boot sequence. 
  • The processor or microprocessor is referred to as the CPU.  
  • The motherboard is the main circuit board that is the largest board in a computer chassis and the base of a computer. It allocates power and facilitates connectivity with the CPU, RAM, and other such hardware components of the computer. 

Context and Applications 

  • School and college-level students 
  • Graduation courses in computer stream 
  • Electronics courses  
  • Computer technician courses 
  • Operating Systems 
  • Software 
  • Hardware 
  • Motherboard 
  • Microprocessors 

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