What is a hall effect sensor?
The hall effect sensor is an electronic device designed to detect the effect of the hall, and converts its findings into electronic data, or opening and closing the circuit, providing a magnetic field measurement, processed by an embedded computer or displayed on a visual connector.
What is the principle of the Hall effect sensor?
In 1879, scientist Edwin hall discovered that when a magnet is placed directly in a conductor with a constant flow of energy, electrons flowing inside the conductor are pulled in one direction, thus making a potential difference in pulse (i.e., voltage). Therefore, the hall effect indicates the presence and magnitude of the magnetic field near the conductor.
Using magnetic fields, the hall effect sensors are used to detect alternatives such as proximity, speed, or displacement of any system. The hall effect sensors are non-contact, which means they do not need to be in contact with the physical object. They can produce a digital signal (open collector or closed collector) or analog (continuous) depending on their design and intended function. Hall effect sensors are precise sensors used to measure the size of magnetic poles.
Working principle of the Hall effect sensor
Hall effect sensors consist of rectangular p-type semiconductor chips, including gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium antimony (InSb), or indium arsenide (InAs), which bypass the non-contact flow itself. When the tool is placed in a magnetic field, the flexible magnetic field uses the working power of the semiconductor to transfer carriers, electrons, and holes to any surface of the semiconductor board. This movement of charge carriers is the result of the magnetic field they receive passing through the semiconductor material.
Hall effect sensors are devices that use an external magnetic field. We know that the magnetic field has important components of flux density, (B) and polarity (North pole - South pole). When the magnetic field of the sensor exceeds the limit, the sensor detects it and produces an output voltage known as hall Voltage, Vh. The hall effect sensor consists of an electronic controller, a hall feature, a divider magnifier, a Schmitt trigger, and an output terminal with digital output values.
Types of hall effect sensor
There are several types of hall effect sensors: liner equipment (or analog), and those with digital effects.
The analog output sensors
The analog output sensor uses a continuous output voltage that rises in a strong magnetic field and falls in a weak magnetic field. Combined with the Hall effect sensor, as the external magnetic field increases with the interaction of the Hall device and the magnet, the output signal will increase synchronously until the power limit is reached.
The sensory effects of the Hall wire, such as the magnetic field, will amplify the output signal of the amplifier until it starts to fill the set power supply. Any further increase in the magnetic field will not affect the output, but it will allow you to fill the space.
The digital output sensors
The digital output device, in contrast, has a ‘Schmitt trap’, which is a rotating circuit on the way to gradually increase and decrease output as the voltage rises and falls at different limits. The path to the Schmitt cause, while the magnetic flux that exceeds the outlet hall sensor exceeds the pre-set tool value, the output from the hall device converts it from ‘off’ to ‘on’. Since the sensor then enters and exits the magnetic object, the integrated hysteresis Hall device removes any output signal accompanying the flow.
There are two types of digital hall effect sensors: bipolar and unipolar, which vary depending on the type of magnetic field required for them to work.
A unipolar sensor requires a single southern magnetic field to function and release itself when entering and exiting the magnetic field. Since the output of the output power is too small for the digital hall effect sensors, most of those hall devices cannot directly hall switch large electrical loads. Many digital sensors resist this by using an open-source NPN transistor. The air gap is one of the most important factors that can affect the magnetic field sensor current that is based on the Hall-Effect.
The transistor acts as a transmission, shortening the output to very low when the magnetic field is higher than the ‘on’ sensor point effect. There are a variety of hall effect modifications available, suitable for a wide variety of activities. A minimum air gap is required to ensure that the sensor does not trigger the magnetic field under the curve that passes through the minute switch.
Uses of the hall effect sensor
Application hall-effect sensors are as follows:
- When combined with the limit acquisition they act as a hall switch.
- These are used in extra reliable systems such as keyboards.
- Hall effect sensors are used to set the speed of wheels and shelves.
- These are used to decide the permanent magnet position in the brushless dc electric motors.
- To obtain the DC sensitivity of current transformers, the hall effect sensor is used.
- That is used as a sensor to detect fuel levels in vehicles.
Remember that, The Hall Effect sensor cannot measure the current flow at a distance greater than 10 cm.
Context and Applications
In each of the expert exams for undergraduate and graduate publications, this topic is huge and is mainly used for:
- Bachelor of technology in the electrical and electronic department
- Bachelor of Science in physics
- Master of Science in physics
- Inductive sensor
Q1. Hall Effect is a/an _____________.
(a) Magnetic density
(d) Flux density
Correct option: (c)
Explanation: Hall Effect is caused by the interaction of the magnetic field with the moving electric charger leading to the development of power that changes the charging movement.
Q2. Hall Effect is clearly visible in_____________.
(a) Pure conductors
Correct option: (b)
Explanation: The hall coefficient depends on the number of free network companies and is visible in semiconductors.
Q3. Hall potential is inversely proportional to magnetic flux density.
Correct option: (b)
Explanation: The strength of the hall is always directly proportional to the magnetic field. The expression is given as EH = BVB; where b is wide and V stands for speed.
Q4. Hall Effect transducer can be used to measure_____________.
(a) Magnetic field
(b) Angular displacement
(c) Linear displacement
(d) All of the mentioned
Correct option: (d)
Explanation: Hall Effect transducers can be used to measure the line and angular shift magnetic field etc.
Q5. Hall Effect transducers attain equilibrium instantaneously.
Correct option: (b)
Explanation: A 10-14 time delay is required for the Hall Effect transducer to achieve balance.
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