What is Electrical Wiring?

Electrical wiring is the way of integrating cables and wires to interconnected equipment such as fuses, switches, sockets, lights, fans, and so on to the main distribution board, which is a specific structure attached to the utility pole that ensures a constant power supply.

The electrical wiring system is done in accordance with a certain set of rules and regulations and some laws that are set by a specific organization. According to electrical laws and standards, electrical wiring must be done appropriately and safely. Suppose electrical wiring is done poorly or without following any standards, it can result in short circuits, electric shocks, device or appliance damage, or device malfunction, all of which reduce the hardware life.

Before residential, commercial, or industrial wiring can be installed, a number of considerations must be taken into account. The type of building, structure of the ceiling, walls, and floors, wiring methods, and installation needs are all factors to be considered.

Methods of electrical wiring system

Electrical wiring is an important feature of any structure, whether it is a residential structure (individual homes or flats), a large commercial structure (office buildings), or an industrial structure (factories). Lighting and other power circuits are wired in a variety of ways and systems.

While choosing an electrical wiring system, there are a few things to be kept in mind:

  • The wiring system's price.
  • Types of wires and cables.
  • Good quality of wires.
  • The kind of load (light, HVAC, motors, etc.)
  • The wiring system's safety.
  • Future modifications or extensions are possible.
  • Installation's lifespan.
  • The building's construction (wooden, concrete, brick and mortar, etc.)
  • Fire prevention is essential.

Regardless of the type of wiring and wire used, the wiring system must be able to work well in conditions like mechanical wear and tear.

Electrical wiring systems are usually determined by the type of wire used. The following are the electrical wiring methods that are regularly used in residential, commercial, industrial, and auditorium settings:

  • Cleat wiring
  • Casing and capping wiring
  • Batten wiring (CTS or TRS)
  • Conduit wiring (Surface or Concealed)
  • Lead sheathed wiring

Cleat Wiring

The figure 1.1 shows schematically diagram of Cleat with two grooves. This Cleat  is used in Cleat Wiring and generally it is attach to the walls.
Figure 1.1: Cleat with two grooves
The figure 1.2 shows schematically diagram of  Cleat with three grooves. It is used in Cleat wiring. It is made up with porcelain and plastic.
Figure 1.2: Cleat with three grooves

Cleat Wiring

Cleat wire is a temporary wiring method that is not recommended for usage in the home. The cleat wiring technique has been retired out.

The braided type compounded VIR or PVC type wires that are insulated for waterproofing are known as cleat wire. The wiring is generally attached to the walls or the ceiling with the aid of materials like, wood, porcelain and plastic.

Advantages of cleat wiring

  • It is a simple and low-cost wiring scheme
  • Because the cleat wiring system's cables and wires are exposed to the elements, any cable faults can be quickly identified and repaired.
  • Cleat wiring system installation is clear and simple.
  • This wiring system allows for easy customization, such as changes and additions.

Disadvantages of Cleat Wiring

  • The appearance is not good.
  • Due to the general weather influence, the risk of fire, and wear and tear is more, it is not a long-lasting wire system.
  • It can only be used at low temperatures on 250/440 Volts.
  • Fire and electric shock are always a possibility.
  • It is not permitted to be used in sensitive or vital locations.

Casing and capping wiring

Casing and capping wiring systems were once common, but they are now considered obsolete due to the emergence of conduit and encased wiring systems. VIR or PVC cables, as well as any other approved insulated cables, are used in this sort of wiring.

The cables were routed through the wooden casing enclosures. To accommodate VIR wires, the casing is made up of a strip of wood with lengthwise parallel grooves. The grooves were created to distinguish between polarities. The capping was used to cover the wires and cables that had been placed and fitted into the casing (also made of wood).

Advantages of casing capping wiring

  • It is a more cost-effective wiring solution than shielded and conduit systems.
  • It's a robust and long-lasting wiring system.
  • This wire topology makes it simple to customize.
  • Oil, steam, smoke, and rain have no effect on it.
  • Because the wires and cables in the casing and capping are covered, there is no risk of electric shock.

Disadvantages of casing capping wiring

  • There is a considerable risk of fire in the casing and capping wiring system.
  • In acidic, alkaline, and humid environments, it is unsuitable.
  • Repairing is expensive, and more materials are required.
  • In today's world, finding material is difficult.
  • White ants can cause damage to wood casing and capping.

Batten wiring (CTS or TRS )

The figure 2 is shown a schematically arrangement of Batten Wiring. It consist of Clip, cable, and batten.
Batten Wiring

The straight teak timber battens in this system are used to run insulated wires. The wooden battens are attached to the ceilings and walls with plugs and screws. To connect the cables to the battens, tinned brass link clips are utilized.

To secure the clips to the battens, rust-resistant nails are utilized. This wiring installation is simpler and less expensive than other electrical wiring systems, and it also takes less time to complete. These are primarily used inside.

In this form of wiring, Cabtyre Sheathed Wire (CTS) or Tough Rubber Sheathed Wire (TRS) is typically used as the electrical conductor.

Advantages of batten wiring

  • Wiring is a simple and straightforward process.
  • A low-cost alternative to traditional electrical wiring schemes.
  • It is both nice and beautiful.
  • Repairing is simple.
  • Long-lasting and durable.
  • This wiring architecture allows for easy customization.
  • In this wiring system, the case of current leakage are not so common.

Disadvantages of batten wiring

  • Humidity, chemical impacts, open, and outdoor environments are not suitable for installation.
  • There is a high risk of fires.
  • Since these wires are exposed to heat, dust, steam, and smoke, they are not resistant to external wear and tear or weather effects.
  • In a batten wiring system, heavy cables are not permitted.
  • Only appropriate for use below 250 V.
  • More cables and wires are required.

Lead sheathed wiring

Conductors are insulated with VIR and coated with a lead aluminum alloy outer sheath comprising roughly 95 percent lead in this form of wire. The metal sheath shielded wires to protect them from mechanical damage, moisture, and corrosion caused by the surrounding environment.
The entire lead sheath covering is made electrically continuous and connected to the ground at the point of entry to protect against electrolytic action caused by the leaking current and to provide safety if the cable sheath becomes alive. With TRS wiring, the lines are run on a wooden batten and attached with link clips.

Advantages of Lead Sheath Wiring

  • Lead sheath has long life.
  • It has good appearance.

Disadvantages of Lead Sheath Wiring

  • Lead sheath is more costly.
  • Finding fault in lead sheath wiring is not easy.

Conduit Wiring

There are two types of Conduit Wiring.

  1. Surface Conduit Wiring
  2. Concealed Conduit Wiring
  1. Surface Conduit Wiring
The image represents the surface conduit wiring.
Surface Conduit Wiring

Surface conduit wiring refers to conduits that are mounted on a roof or wall. In this wiring approach, holes are drilled into the wall surface at uniform intervals, and the conduit is subsequently fitted using rawl plugs. There are two types of materials are used for Surface Conduit Wiring, Metallic and Non-metallic Conduit wiring. In a metallic conduit wiring system, steel (material) is used and in Non-metallic, plastic pipes are used.

2. Concealed Conduit Wiring

The image represents the concealed conduit wiring.
Concealed Conduit Wiring

Concealed conduit wiring is one that have the slots inside the plasters of the wall and are not visible in general. Thus, it can be concluded that the concealed conduits have conduits that run through the walls in structure like floors, walls, ceilings or tubes dedicated for wiring only. In places where the changes to the normal wiring are done frequently like in office environment or in factories, the concealed conduits are hanged through the ceilings or the walls with the aid of pins or hooks.

It must be noted that conduits must be properly connected and earthed by a well trained professional. The most common types of conduit used are PVC (polyvinyl chloride).

Advantages of conduit wiring

  • It is the most secure wiring method available.
  • The appearance is stunning.
  • Repairing and maintaining your vehicle is simple.
  • The cables' insulation will not be harmed.
  • It is resistant to corrosion and fire.
  • It can be employed in humidified, chemically affected, and smoky environments.
  • There is no danger of electric shock
  • It is a well-liked and dependable wiring system.
  • Wiring system that is both long-lasting and sustainable.

Disadvantages of conduit wiring

  • It is a costly wiring system.
  • It was quite challenging to locate the wiring flaws.
  • Installation is not simple.
  • Electric shock danger.
  • Additional connections will be complicated to manage in the future.
  • Types of drawings
  • Block diagram of Wiring System
  • Circuit Drawing Diagram
  • Electrical Wiring diagram
  • Electric Wiring Components and Accessories

Common Mistakes

  • Exposed wire: If a cable is exposed too close to another wire or metal, it might cause a short circuit.
  • Loose cables: They can be found on the interior or exterior of a building, walls, the ceiling, and the ceiling. They can be cut by accident (by children or workers), causing damage to the cables and, if loaded, catastrophic casualties.
  • Choose the wrong circuit breaker: In the event of a short circuit or overload, circuit breakers are employed to protect both equipment and people.
  • Open junction box: Some may believe that because your wires are well connected and shielded, they can continue to utilize the box as is. It isn't safe; their job isn't finished and appears amateurish.
  • Connection is not proper: Take your time throughout the installation. Although this is a rare occurrence among experienced electricians, the polarity of the receptacles may be reversed for unknown reasons. The allocated places for the hot and neutral wires are noted on the device.
  • Wiring done must be be appropriate.
  • Take the necessary measurement for accurate wiring.
  • Note the conditions to determine the type of wiring must be used.

Context and Applications

The topic Methods of wiring is basically studied and taught to the students in the below-mentioned courses:

  • Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering
  • Master of technology in Electrical Engineering
  • Bachelor of Science in Power and Electronics
  • Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering

There are some more applications of the topic, that are listed below:

  • Switchgear for electrical power
  • Lighting fixtures
  • Telecommunications apparatus
  • Textile machines
  • Equipment for safety
  • Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering.
  • Masters of Technology in Electrical Engineering.

Practice Problems

Q1. Which are the methods of wiring?

A. Cleat Wiring

B. Casing and Capping Wiring

C. Batten Wiring

D. All of above

Answer: D

Explanation: The different methods of wiring are cleat wiring, casing and capping wiring, and batten wiring.

Q2. What are the types of conduit wiring?

A. Casing and capping wiring

B. Batten and cleat wiring

C. Surface and concealed wiring

D. None

Answer: C

Explanation: Conduit wiring has two types that are surface conduit and concealed conduit wiring.

Q3. What are the factors considered for electrical wiring methods?

A. Good quality of wires.

B. The kind of load.

C. The wiring system's safety.

D. All of above

Answer: D

Explanation: These factors are more important for an electrical wiring system.

Q4. Conductors are insulated with VIR and coated with a lead aluminum alloy outer sheath comprising roughly .......% lead in this form of wire.

A. 90

B. 95

C. 85

D. 80

Answer: B

Explanation: It is an alloy of lead aluminum that is 95% of lead and 5% of aluminum.

Q5. In the surface conduit wiring system which type of conduit is used?

A. Metal and non-metal

B. Ceramic

C. Alloy

D. None

Answer: A

Explanation: Metal and non-metallic conduit are used for surface conduit wiring systems.

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