What is the meaning of wound?
A wound is damaged or breaks in the surface of the skin. The wound is divided into two types, they are acute wound that includes minor cuts, laceration, bites, etc, and chronic wounds that can become slow to heal including ulcers on the legs and feet. Redness, pain, and swelling are signs of a wound.
What is meant by wound infections?
A wound infection occurs when germs, such as bacteria, grow within the damaged skin of a wound. Symptoms can include increasing pain, swelling, and redness. More severe infections may cause nausea, chills, or fever. Minor wound infections can sometimes be treated at home. People with more serious or persistent wound infections, on the other hand, should seek medical help. Bacteria, fungi, and viruses can cause skin and wound infection.
Types of wound infections
Wound infection is categorized into two types, they are:
Exogenous infection occurs when a pathogen enters a patient's body from the outside. These diseases can be spread by a contaminated device, a contaminated healthcare worker, a contaminated surface, or another vector. Exogenous infections are more likely in patients with open incisions, indwelling devices, and weakened immune systems. Traumatic injury, human or animal bite, and burns are exogenous infections.
We become infected with our bacteria, our microflora, in the event of endogenous diseases. When a barrier between sterile and non-sterile tissues is destroyed, such as when a bowel rupture occurs, this can happen. A patient with a weakened immune system, such as those who have undergone chemotherapy, may develop ill as a result of bacteria already existing in their bodies that have gone unchecked. In some cases, such as tuberculosis, a dormant pathogen can revive and infect the host.
How to recognize a wound infection?
Small wounds, such as minor cuts and scratches, can typically be treated safely at home. Most tiny wounds will progressively improve with adequate treatment until they heal. However, if a wound becomes infected, it may worsen rather than improve. The intensity of any pain, redness, or swelling will usually rise.
Examples of wound infections
Trauma can occur as a result of any physical force, resulting in a variety of wounds that are prone to infection, ranging from minor scrapes to deep, piercing wounds. Wounds that have been polluted with dirt or other foreign matter are more likely to become infected. It is not uncommon for more than one type of bacteria to cause infection in deep and polluted wounds.
Bite wound infections are often caused by microorganisms found in the saliva and mouth of the person or animal who caused the bite wound. A range of bacteria that are part of the normal mouth flora can infect human bites. The most prevalent bacteria is Pasteurella multocida, which is found in the majority of dog and cat bites.
Surgical areas are frequently infected by the person's regular skin and/or digestive system flora, which are the same bacteria that cause superficial infections. They may also develop infections as a result of exposure to germs in the hospital.
Burns impact several layers of tissue and can range from moderate to severe. The epidermis is burned in first-degree burns. Second-degree burns go all the way down to the dermis. Third-degree burns penetrate all layers of tissue, causing harm to the tissues beneath it. The risk of infection rises as tissue damage increases.
Major symptoms of wound infections
The major symptoms of wound infections
- Redness or discoloration
- The wound giving off an unpleasent odor
- Fever and chills
Risk factors of wound infections
When bacteria enter the wound and multiply, cuts grazes, and other breaks in the skin can become infected. Bacteria could have come from the injured person's skin, the surroundings, or the instrument that caused the injury. To limit the danger of infection, it's critical to clean and protect the wound appropriately. The wound infection may be higher if the wound is large and deep. It is severe when the cause of the wound was a bite from an animal or another person. Some health conditions and environmental factors may increase the risk factor of wound infections, they are:
- Poor blood circulation
- A weak immune system
- Advancing aging
- Nutrient and vitamin deficiency
Treatment for wound infections
Treatment is determined by the type of infection and its severity. Oral antibiotics may be prescribed by the doctor to help fight bacteria. The doctor may also use an antibiotic solution to clean the area or apply an antibiotic ointment. A pus-filled pocket (abscess) can occur in some cases. The abscess will then be opened and the fluid drained. If the infection is serious, you may need to be admitted to the hospital. If the wound contains dead or contaminated tissue, a doctor may remove this tissue in a procedure called debridement. Debridement should promote healing and prevent the infection from spreading.
Complications of wound infections
If a person does not take proper treatment for the wound infection, it can spread over the various parts of the body, which may lead to severe problems. Some major problems are:
Test for detecting wound infections
A healthcare practitioner can diagnose many small and superficial skin and wound infections based on a physical examination, signs, and symptoms, and experience. However, a clinical examination cannot tell a healthcare provider which bacterium is causing a wound infection or which treatment is most likely to be beneficial. This needs laboratory testing.
Some laboratory tests include:
- Bacterium culture
- Antimicrobial suceptability
- Fungal culture
- Blood culture
Prevention of wound infections
Wound infections can be prevented in the following ways:
- Wash the wound area using clean water
- Allow the skin to air-dary
- Apply an antispetic oilment to the wound
- Cover the woiund with bandage or a clean cotton cloth
- Using antibiotic
Context and Applications
This topic is important for professional courses, especially for
- Bachelor of Science in Human Physiology
- Bachelor of Science in Microbiology
- Masters of Science in Epidemiology
Question 1: Two major layers of the skin are ______________.
- Epidermis and subdermis
2. Dermis and subcutaneous
3. Epidermis and dermis
4. The dermal and fatty layer
Answer: Option 3 is correct.
Explanation: The skin is classically subdivided into two major components, the epidermis, and the dermis.
Question 2: How to frequently the epidermis typically regenerate?
- 4 to 6 weeks
- 11 to 12 weeks
- 10 to 15 weeks
- 7 to 9 weeks
Answer: Option 1 is correct.
Explanation: The epidermis is a thin outer layer of skin. It is an avascular layer that regenerates itself every 4 to 6 weeks.
Question 3: Which of the following condition is associated with cell proliferation?
- Metastatic calsifiaction
- All of the above.
Answer: Option 2 is correct.
Explanation: Hyperplasia, or hypergenesis, is an enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation
Question 4: Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes__________.
- Fat nercrosis
2. Caseous necrosis
3. Gangerounes necrosis
4. All of the above
Answer: Option 2 is correct.
Explanation: Caseous necrosis, also known as caseous degeneration, is a kind of cell death in which the tissue retains a cheese-like look after death. It's also a type of coagulative necrosis that's different. A soft and white proteinaceous dead cell mass appears to be the dead tissue.
Question 5: What is mean by exogenous infection?
- Infection occurs person's out side of the body
- Infection occur person;s inside of the body
- Infection occur in epithelial cell
- All of the above.
Answer: Option 1 is correct.
Explanation: Exogenous infection occurs when a pathogen enters a patient's body from the outside. These diseases can be spread by a contaminated device, a contaminated healthcare worker, a contaminated surface, or another vector.
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