What is chemistry?

Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with the analysis of material and the substances that comprise it. It also manages the properties of these substances and their reactions to form new substances. It is basically centered on particles and atoms that make up components and mixtures. These chemical species will in general connect using bonds.

Parts of chemistry

The five essential branches of chemistry are as follows,

  • Physical chemistry.
  • Organic chemistry.
  • Inorganic chemistry.
  • Analytical chemistry.
  • Biochemistry.

Aside from these essential branches, there exist a few specific fields of chemistry that have cross-disciplinary matters. The other parts of chemistry are as follows,

  • Medicinal chemistry.
  • Neurochemistry.
  • Nuclear chemistry.
  • Environmental chemistry.
  • Polymer chemistry.
  • Thermochemistry.

Introduction to physical chemistry

Physical chemistry is a part of chemistry that deals with the associations and changes of materials contrary to diverse branches; physical chemistry manages physical science standards. It deals with calculation, connect, and make clear the quantitative parts of reactions. Quantum mechanics explains much for physical chemistry by displaying the smallest particles commonly managed in the field, molecules, and atoms. Chemical thermodynamics manages the connection between heat and different chemical energy types, kinetics with compound reaction rates.

Parts of physical chemistry

Sub-disciplines of physical chemistry incorporate,

  • Electrochemistry.
  • Photochemistry.
  • Surface chemistry.
  • Catalysis.
  • Thermodynamics.

Some of the relationships that physical chemistry strives to resolve:

  • Intermolecular forces that follow up on the actual properties of materials such as flexibility, elasticity, surface strain in fluids.
  • The identity of particles and the electrical conductivity of materials.
  • Surface chemistry and electrochemistry of cell membranes.
  • Communication of one body with another as far as amounts of heat and work called thermodynamics.
  • Movement of heat between a substance and its environmental elements during change of stage or chemical reactions occurring called thermochemistry.
  • Analysis of colligative properties of number of species present in solutions.
  • Electrochemical cells reactions.
  • Conduct of infinitesimal particle strucuture utilizing quantum mechanics and perceptible structure utilizing statistical thermodynamics.

Introduction to organic chemistry

The diagram shows the classification of organic compounds

The concept of organic chemistry is the science of carbon compounds. Carbon is singled out because it has a chemical diversity unparalleled by some other compound. Its diversity depends on the accompanying:

  • Carbon particles bond sensibly strongly with new carbon atoms.
  • Carbon particles bond sensibly strongly with atoms of different components.
  • Carbon particles make an enormous number of covalent bonds.

Carbon isn't especially abundant. In any case, all living things comprise organic compounds. Most of the organic substances are covalent mixtures. Compounds containing carbonate particles and bicarbonate particles, just as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, are not viewed as a component of organic chemistry even though they contain carbon.

Classifications of organic compounds

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds and are made out of carbon and hydrogen particles. A few hydrocarbons have just single bonds and show up as a chain that can be straight-chain or have parts of carbon molecules additionally attached to hydrogen atoms. These hydrocarbons are called alkanes.

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Aromatic hydrocarbons are unsaturated hydrocarbons that have at least one planar six-carbon ring called benzene rings, to which hydrogen atoms are connected. The benzene ring is settled by resonance and the electrons are delocalized in the ring structure.

Heterocyclic hydrocarbons

The character of the cyclic hydrocarbons is again changed in case heteroatoms are available, which can exist as either substituent joined remotely to the ring (exocyclic) or as an individual from the actual ring (endocyclic). On account of the last mentioned, the ring has been named a heterocycle.

Introduction to inorganic chemistry

The concept of organic chemistry contains carbon molecules. So the part of science that involves investigating compounds, which don't comprise carbon-hydrogen particles, is called inorganic chemistry. In other words, it is inverse to that of organic chemistry. The substances which don't have carbon-hydrogen bonding are metals, salts, compound substances, and so forth.

On this planet, there are known to exist around 1000,000 numbers of inorganic mixtures. Inorganic science contemplates the conduct of these mixtures alongside their properties and physical and substance qualities. The components of the periodic table except carbon and hydrogen come in inorganic compounds.

A large number of the components are mechanically significant: titanium, iron, nickel, and copper, for instance, are utilized basically and electrically. Second, the change metals structure a few helpful amalgams, with one another and with other metallic components.

Grouping of inorganic compounds

  • Acids: Acids are those mixtures that break down in water and create hydrogen particles or hydrogen ions. The instances of acids incorporate HCl, citrus extract, H2SO4 , vinegar, and so on.
  • Bases: A base is a kind of substance or a compound that produces hydroxyl particles when kept in water. The bases like potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, smelling salts, sodium hydroxide produce hydroxyl particles when broken up in water.
  • Salts: As you may be comfortable with the word salt. The substances acquired because of the chemical reactions between an acid and a base is called salts. The table salt of sodium hydroxide is one of the ordinary instances of salts.
  • Oxides: Chemical compounds which comprise of one oxygen particle called oxides.

Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry is the part of science that includes the division, identifiable proof, and the evaluation of matter. It includes the utilization of old-style strategies alongside current techniques including the utilization of logical instruments. Analytical chemistry includes the accompanying techniques:

  • The interaction of partition detaches the necessary compound species which is to be broke down from a combination.
  • The recognition of the analyte substance is accomplished through the technique for subjective analysis.
  • The concentration of the analyte in a given mixture can be resolved with the technique for quantitative analysis.


The biochemistry concept incorporates wide spaces of sub-atomic science just as cell science. It applies to particles that make up the construction of organs and cells which are the sub-atomic life structures. It portrays carbon compounds and the responses they go through in living beings. It additionally portrays sub-atomic physiology, which are the elements of particles in doing the necessities of the cells and organs. It manages the investigation of the construction and elements of the biomolecule like sugars, proteins, acids, lipids. Subsequently, it is likewise called molecular science.

Context and Applications

This topic is important for both undergraduate and postgraduate courses, particularly for Bachelors of Chemistry and Biochemistry.

Practice Problems

Question 1: The branch of chemistry which deals with carbon and its reaction is?

A) Organic chemistry

B) Inorganic chemistry

C) Analytical chemistry

D) Biochemistry

Answer: Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: Organic chemistry is the investigation of the science of carbon compounds.

Question 2: Which among the following is a noble gas?
[A] Nitrogen
[B] Hydrogen
[C] Oxygen
[D] Helium
Answer: Option (D) is correct.
Explanation: The noble gases are the chemical elements in group 18 of the periodic table. This group contains helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.

Question 3: Which of the following elements are liquid at or near room temperature?

  1. Cesium
  2. Mercury
  3. Gallium
  4. Francium

Select the correct option from the codes given below:

[A] 1 & 2 Only
[B] 1, 2 & 3 Only
[C] 2 & 3 Only
[D] 1, 2, 3 & 4

Answer: Option (D) is correct.
Explanation: Four metals that are liquid at or near room temperature are: mercury, cesium, gallium, and francium.

Question 4: How many groups of p–block elements are there in the periodic table?
[A] 4
[B] 6
[C] 8
[D] 3
Answer: B [6]
Explanation: There are six groups of p–block elements in the periodic table numbering from 13 to 18.

Question 5: Which of the following represents the general formula for alkanes?
[A] CnH2n
[B] CnH2n-2
[C] CnH2n+2
[D] CnHn
Answer: Option (C) is correct
Explanation: Alkanes are saturated open-chain hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon single bond

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