Halogen bonding, XB, is the product of a non-covalent interaction between a halogen X and a negative site B (e.g., Lewis base). The halogen, X, is usually part of an R-X molecule where R can be another halogen, an organic or an inorganic electron-donating-group. Halogen bonding (XB) is in some ways analogous to hydrogen bonding (HB). In the latter, a hydrogen atom is shared between an atom, group or molecule that “donates” and another that “accepts” it.[1-3] In halogen bonding, it is a halogen atom X that is shared between a donor R and an acceptor Y. Thus the two forms of interaction can be illustrated by:
HB : R_H…Y
XB : R_X…Y
Because of their high electronegativity; halogen atoms in halo-organics are classically …show more content…
More recent studies of the halogen bond in the solid state have been conferred by both Pennington et al and Laurence et al. [19-21]
The seventies and the eighties of the last century witnessed the further extension of the experimental inspections by introducing infrared spectroscopy of Lewis base–dihalogen complexes isolated in solid inert gas matrices at temperatures low enough to cease reaction, even when the dihalogen was ClF or F2. Lattice effects in cryogenic matrices are lesser than those present in Hassel’s crystals however, they are not fully absent. [22-37]
The introduction of supersonic expansion techniques endorsed studying the rotational spectra of HF…ClF12 and HF…Cl2 13 in active isolation via molecular beam electric resonance spectroscopy. Klemperer et al referred to such complexes as anti-hydrogen bonded, with HF acting as a Lewis base. The advantage of the supersonic
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
Alkanes are relatively unreactive. There are only a few types of reactions commonly performed. In this lab, halogenation was performed. In the methane molecule, the
In order to synthesize our metal complexes, we were able to make both Copper and Ruthenium metals. From this, we combined each metal complex with DMSO by refluxing the compound. The metal complexes were analyzed through their melting point and IR spectroscopy to determine whether the metal bonded to a Sulfur atom or an Oxygen atom of the DMSO. After analyzing the IR spectrum, it was determined that S=O shifted to a lower wavenumber in CuCl2~2DMSO and that S=O shifted to a higher wavenumber in RuCl2~4DMSO.
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the relative reactivities of different types of hydrogen atoms toward bromine atoms. Although the tested compounds were all arenes, their reactivities differ as they contain different types of hydrogens. The hydrogens could be of three different types and could also differ in being bonded to carbons that are attached to a different number of other carbons. The three different types of hydrogens that could be found were aromatic, aliphatic, and benzylic. The first category is aromatic hydrogens, which are attached to sp2 carbons or are those directly bonded to an aromatic ring. Aromatic hydrogens are the least reactive of the hydrogens in this experiment. The second type of hydrogen being investigated is aliphatic hydrogens, which are found bonded to an SP3 hybridized carbon which are bonded to another SP3 hybridized carbon. Aliphatic hydrogens can also be broken down into further categories according to their number of substituents into primary (less reactive), secondary (more reactive), and tertiary (most reactive). The third type of hydrogens are benzylic hydrogens, which are bonded to a SP3 hybridized carbon that is bonded to a benzene ring. Benzylic hydrogens are also broken into primary and secondary categories according to their substituents, and are all more reactive than aliphatic and aromatic hydrogens.
Science A CH1HP H Unit Chemistry C1 Chemistry Unit Chemistry C1 Monday 10 June 2013 1.30 pm to 2.30 pm Mark 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TOTAL For this paper you must have: a ruler the Chemistry Data Sheet (enclosed).
The result from the IR spectra for Trans-[Bis(inosinato)palladium(II)], and inosine are summarized in Table 2 and 3. It is important to note that Trans-[Bis(inosinato)palladium(II)] compound had an extra carbonyl peak at 1712.21 cm-1 which is from inosine impurity.
Bromide molecule from pyridinium tribromide was attacked by pi bond creating a positive charge on the bromide. To stabilize the structure, the negative bromide was introduced via frontside attack and made an syn product.
Theory: This lab focuses on the characteristics and properties of oxides found in period 3 of the periodic table. Naturally, the oxides of different elements have different properties, mainly because of their intermolecular bonds and their intramolecular bonds. Intermolecular bonds refer to the attraction and repulsion found between neighbouring ions or molecules. These typically determine the molecules physical properties, such as boiling/melting points, shape/state, hardness/softness, colour, lustre, ductility, brittleness etc.
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the rotation constant, vibration-rotation interaction constant, moment of inertia, and bond lengths for Acetylene(C2H2) and Deuterated Acetylene(C2D2) synthesized in the lab. Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), an absorption spectrum for C2H2 and C2D2 was generated and using the peaks and values given by the FTIR, the bond length between C≡C and C-H ultimately determined.
2. Miller, F.; Wilkins, C. Infrared Spectra and Characteristic Frequencies of Inorganic Ions. Ph.D. Dissertation, Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1952.
1Irving, H and Williams, R. J. P, The Stability of Transition-metal Complexes. 1952, J. Chem. Soc., 1953, 3192-3210 DOI: 10.1039/JR9530003192 http://www.ciens.ucv.ve/eqsol/Inorganica%20II/articulo2.pdf (assessed 20 Oct 2014)