A Brief Note On Coronary Heart Disease ( Cad )

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Chapter I

The heart is the human’s central blood pump, a motor which through arteries, veins and capillaries supplies blood to every part of the body, including the heart itself for correct functioning. Failure to deliver blood to different limbs and organs (excluding the brain) at any particular time can result in pain, numbness or loss of function for some time. However, failure to deliver blood to the heart itself, compromises its correct functioning and could result in a myocardial infarction (heart attack), which, if not intervened within an hour of the onset of symptoms, results in immediate death in more than 50% of the cases[1].

Cardiovascular disease, specifically coronary artery disease (CAD) (also known as coronary heart disease) is the number one killer in the US, shadowing all other causes, including cancer, unintentional injuries, lung disease and AIDS [2]. Coronary arteries are the blood vessels that supply the heart with its own share of blood which keeps the heart pumping. CAD occurs when the heart’s blood suppliers, i.e. coronary arteries, are constricted due to plaque accumulation (Figure 1B) and hence result in an inadequate blood supply, which prevents the heart from pumping effectively or in the worst case scenario, a heart attack.

There are two main coronary arteries which supply the heart: right and left coronary artery (Figure 1A). The left coronary artery divides into two branches, the circumflex and the left anterior

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