Analysis Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma ( Hcc )

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a lethal liver cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is in dire need of novel targets to develop more effective treatments. The conventional treatment options of surgery and chemotherapy were limited to pre-metastatic HCC; however, a multi-kinase inhibitor, in addition to targeting other factors involved in development and progression of the disease showed promising results in advanced HCC [42]. LncRNAs such as HOTAIR, MALAT1, and H10 are dysregulated and have been suggested to play an essential role in HCC development whereas dysregulation affects proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. This is also true for gastric cancer, whereby dysregulation of lncRNAs- HOTAIR, HULC, and H19 are relatively linked to development, metastasis, and prognosis [43]. HCC is also characterized by aberrant expression of miRNAs. Respectively, upregulation and downregulation has been associated with invasion and metastasis, tumor progression, and drug resistance. Meng et al. proposed that aberrantly expressed miRNAs may regulate the expression of certain genes that control cell growth, migration, and invasion. In this study, the expression of miRNA in normal versus tumor tissue was investigated which led to the identification of overexpressed miR-21 in human HCC that could potentially serve as a target for regulating downstream events [44].
In prostate cancer, the second most common cause of death among men, lncRNAs such as PCA3, PCGEM1, SChLAP1, and
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