Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a lethal liver cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is in dire need of novel targets to develop more effective treatments. The conventional treatment options of surgery and chemotherapy were limited to pre-metastatic HCC; however, a multi-kinase inhibitor, in addition to targeting other factors involved in development and progression of the disease showed promising results in advanced HCC . LncRNAs such as HOTAIR, MALAT1, and H10 are dysregulated and have been suggested to play an essential role in HCC development whereas dysregulation affects proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. This is also true for gastric cancer, whereby dysregulation of lncRNAs- HOTAIR, HULC, and H19 are relatively linked to development, metastasis, and prognosis . HCC is also characterized by aberrant expression of miRNAs. Respectively, upregulation and downregulation has been associated with invasion and metastasis, tumor progression, and drug resistance. Meng et al. proposed that aberrantly expressed miRNAs may regulate the expression of certain genes that control cell growth, migration, and invasion. In this study, the expression of miRNA in normal versus tumor tissue was investigated which led to the identification of overexpressed miR-21 in human HCC that could potentially serve as a target for regulating downstream events .
In prostate cancer, the second most common cause of death among men, lncRNAs such as PCA3, PCGEM1, SChLAP1, and
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The MD Anderson Liver Tumor biospecimen resource has been invaluable for a large number of studies or clinical development. The sixth and subsequent editions of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of hepatocellular cancer, which was developed by an international consortium led by Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, MD, Professor of Surgery at MD Anderson and co-leader on project 2 of the SPORE, was based upon pathologic review of resected specimens in the Liver Tumor Bank (Vauthey JN J Clin Oncol 2002 20:1527-36). In addition, investigators at MD Anderson examined tissues in the Liver Tumor Bank to elucidate the prognostic significance of the ribonucleoprotein Human Antigen R (HuR) showing that patients with high HuR tumor expression had
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and it is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men according to the American Cancer Society(ACS) ( 2016). Older age is the strongest risk factor for the development of prostate cancer. Approximately 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime (ACS, 2016). There are more than 2.9 million prostate cancer survivors in the United States (ACS, 2016). The risk of dying from prostate cancer is 2.9 percent, with seventy percent of deaths occurring after age 75(ACS, 2016; Howlader, Krapcho, Neyman,Aminou et al, 2011). The use of the prostate-specific antigen testing transformed prostate cancer screening in the 1990’s (Up to date) . PSA screening for prostate
Prostate cancer refers to the malignant growth of glandular cells located in the prostate. Under normal circumstances these cells sit in the glands which are responsible for the production of fluids that make up most of the semen in males . However once these cells lose their control, what happens is that they will keep on growing until they become cancerous . Ultimately this means that the natural surrounding layers that did act like barriers for these cells are now broken and therefore allows the spread of these malignant cells to other organs within the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes . When this does take place the risk of death also increases. At the age of 85, a man is said to have a 1 in 5 chances of developing prostate cancer sometime in their life. The risk is said to double if a male has a first-degree relative who has been diagnosed with prostate cancer.
A review of the records reveals the member to be an adult female with a birth date of 11/12/1947. The member has a diagnosis of endometrial cancer and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC). The member’s treating provider, William Cliby, MD recommended the member have a positron emission tomography (PET) scan performed.
It has been found that HCC originates from the hepatic stem cells which comprise the most cellular part of the liver. However, there needs to do some investigation regarding this fact.6 The development of carcinogenesis is typically a stepwise process. The sequential genetic mutations in hepatic cells lead to the activation of oncogenes. As a result of this, the tumor suppressing genes get deactivated resulting in the development o HCC.7 There are a variety of pathways for carcinogenesis which are altered due to external and environmental factors, leading to genetic changes. The major genetic changes are observed in p53, PIKCA and β-catenin genes. Moreover, dysplastic nodules and regenerartive nodules are observed in cirrhotic liver. However, there is no clear connection found between these nodules and the HCC
Dr. Charles E. Crutchfield III, a clinical professor of dermatology at the University of Minnesota Medical School, and medical director of Crutchfield Dermatology states that there are three main types of skin cancer, the most common of which is basal cell carcinoma the second most common skin cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, and the final and and the most dangerous form of skin cancer is melanoma. According to the American Academy of Dermatology every year in the United States over two million people are diagnosed with some form of skin cancer.
Biomarkers are natural indicators in the body that respond noticeably to the presence of disease. By measuring the responses of biomarkers, oncologists detect the cancerous cells before recommending expensive procedures, rather than immediately resorting to these procedures. One of these biomarkers that responds to the presence of cancerous cells is microRNA. MicroRNAs are molecules that are involved in the cell life cycle and therefore the progression of cancerous cells. A study in cancer patients was conducted to compare the accuracy of screening with microRNAs to screening with LDCT. Observing microRNAs did not prove to be as accurate at identifying cancer as LDCT, but since using microRNAs is a less expensive process, it can identify patients that should undergo LCDT testing. Screening with microRNA testing initially would decrease the number of patients paying for LCDT testing.
Prostate cancer originates in the secretory epithelial compartment of the prostate. The major function of these cells is to secrete protein components of prostatic fluid such as MSMB. With progression to metastasis, cells proliferate faster and lose their differentiated secretory phenotype. Expression of the mRNA of tumor suppressors and many cytoskeletal proteins decline. On the other hand, expression of genes associated with cell cycle [cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases] and protection from apoptosis [BIRC5] increase. As tumors grow, they become hypoxic due to characteristics of the tumor specific blood supply.
Dysregulation of gene expression within the neurons could also result in uncontrolled cell growth leading to formation of tumors. This was facilitated by expressing the targets of miR-10b—BCL2L11/Bim, TFAP2C/AP-2γ, CDKN1A/p21, and CDKN2A/p16 that regulated controlled cell growth. MiR-10b was therefore responsible for uncontrolled cellular growth by downregulating proapoptotic genes. These miRNAs have been validated to negatively regulate the protein tyrosine phosphatase μ (PTPμ) gene that has been observed to be down regulated in these tumor cells. Inhibition of miR-10b decreased growth of the tumor by retraction from the cell cycle and encouraging programmed cell death. Decreased survival of glioblastoma
cancer is a collection ofrelated diseases and it can start almost anywhere in the human body. Cancer occurs when cells begin to grow and myltiply in an uncontrolled way. This is because cells usually kills itself when it is damaged or grow old, but when abnormal cells don't kill itself but replicate again and again witout stoping cancer happens.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNAs that are more than 200 nucleotides long (2) and do not encode proteins. LncRNAs regulate a spectrum of biological functions and their misregulation or differential expression contribute to tumerogenesis. Exploiting this feature of lncRNAs make them excellent candidates for cancer therapy. An important indication of cancer is metabolic reprogramming which is indicated by increase in various pathways in cells such as glycolysis, glutaminolysis, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, synthesis of nucleotide and fatty acids, and formation of citrate through TCA cycle (4). Prostate Cancer Gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1) (3), is a lncRNA that control the reprogramming of metabolic pathways in prostate
Increased expression of angiogenesis marker, VEGF and metastasis marker, MMP-2 are associated with increased HIF-1α in HCC patient with lymph node metastasis (LNM) 34 where knockdown of HIF-1α repressed both VEGF and MMP-2 resulting decreased angiogenesis and metastasis respectively 35. HIF-1α is also involved in the regulation of gene expression during inflammation. Xia and coworkers demonstrated that by the induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), HIF-1α directly binds with Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) promoter which is a proliferation specific transcription factor and subsequently promote HCC cell proliferation with apoptosis resistance 33. HIF-1α stabilization also fuels hypoxic solid tumor with survival potential through glycolysis by upregulating many enzymes of glycolysis pathway. For instance, Hypoxia stimulates HCC cellular growth through HIF-1α dependent induction of hexokinase 2 (HK2) enzyme. Inhibiting HK2 expression in a murine HCC model increased tumour cell apoptosis and limited tumour growth
Around 30,000 people die of liver cancer per year. This cancer is one of many dangerous cancers, which is mainly because nearly one third of our population has liver cancer, this cancer is primarily introduced by the abundance of alcohol abuse.
The levels of microRNA-22-3p (miR-22-3p) and TP63 were analyzed by RT-qPCR and/or Western blot. Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay. Cell invasion and migration were evaluated using Transwell assay chambers. Prediction of a regulatory relationship between microRNA-22-3p and 3'-UTR of TP63 mRNA was performed by a bioinformatics algorithm and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay.
Additionally, it has been found that miRNAs in circulating exosomes are representative of those increased in the primary tumor cells . In a separate study, Ohuchida et al. distinguished 24 miRNAs with altered expression in gemcitabine-resistant cells, and furthermore found that patients with high miR-142-5p and miR-204 expression had significantly longer survival times than those with low miR-142-5p and miR-204