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Cause And Effects Of Drought

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Drought is a form of a natural abiotic stress in plants that affects plant growth and is characterized as one of the most widespread environmental stresses occurring globally (Ekmekci, Y., & Kalefetoglu T., 2005). It occurs when there is an absence of rainfall for a particular period of time. This happens when atmospheric conditions such as climate change causes extensive loss of water in soil content that damage and injure plant structure and disruption in physiology (Jaleel, C., P. Manivannan, A. Wahid, M. Farooq, R. Somasundaram and R. Panneerselvam, 2009). Drought can be considered as water deficit and desiccation (Ekmekci, Y., & Kalefetoglu T., 2005). Water deficit occur when loss of water is moderate and the stomata of the plants’ closes resulting to a limitation of gas exchange (Jaleel, C., et.al., 2009). Desiccation occur when there is an extensive loss of water that results to a disruption in the plant’s metabolism, cell structure and eventually to the termination of enzyme catalyzed reactions (Ekmekci, Y., & Kalefetoglu T., 2005). Some effects of drought in plants are as follows; decreased in cell enlargement and growth which reduces the height of plants, decline in the water content of leaves, turgor loss, altered cholorophyll (a & b) pigment concentrations and carotenoids which reduces tissue concentrations of a plant and disturbs or disrupts biochemical processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, ion uptake, translocation and nutrient metabolism (Jaleel,
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