Causes And Treatment Of Cancer

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Cancer is the one of the leading cause of death both in economically developed as well as developing countries (Jemal, Bray et al. 2011). Although a number of chemotherapeutic drugs can considerably shrink tumor sizes, but they often fail to eradicate tumors completely (Sun, Wen et al. 2011) or have other limitations like toxicity and very high cost. Resistance to chemotherapeutic regime is a major reason nowadays for failure of anticancer treatments. Thus, there is always the quest for a molecule which have anti-proliferative activity against drug sensitive as well as drug resistant cancer cell and which do not have toxicity for normal body cells. Herbs and spices have been the important part of life since the beginning of civilization.…show more content…
Black pepper very famous spices could be called as king of spices as found on most dinner tables worldwide and is being used for centuries in Ayurveda (D 'Cruz S and Mathur 2005) (Bang, Oh da et al. 2009). Besides this, it has been used as preservative and insecticide (Srinivasan 2007). Piperine is an alkaloid extracted from seeds of Piperaceae family plants, black pepper (3–9 %) and long pepper (3–5 %) which are cultivated on a large scale in India and therefore, readily available (Kumar, Raman et al. 2012). Figure 1: Chemical structures of piperine. Piperine is also known as (E,E)-1-piperoylpiperidine and (E,E)-1-[5-(1, 3-benzodioxol-5-y1)-1-oxo-2, 4-pentdienyl] piperidine. Piperine is the first and most potent bio-enhancer to this date (Atal and Bedi 2010). It enhances the bioavailability of many drugs by increasing the absorption from the intestine, suppressing the xenobiotics of drug by the body in pulmonary and hepatic tissues via inhibiting CYP3A4 and inhibiting P-glycoprotein (Atal, Dubey et al. 1985; Bhardwaj, Glaeser et al. 2002; Makhov, Golovine et al. 2012). P-glycoprotein is an ATP-dependent efflux transporter that pumps various drug molecules out of the cancer cells (Zhu, Wang et al. 2007) and responsible for multidrug resistance (Ampasavate, Sotanaphun et al. 2010). Piperine have anti-microbial and anti-parasitic (Raay, Medda et al. 1999) suppress the nuclear import and activation of NF-κB (Sun, Wen et al. 2011) have anti-inflammatory (Vaibhav,
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