Tensions between India and Pakistan can be traced to the partition of British India to form independent India and Pakistan in 1947. The princely states were forced to decide whether to accede to either Pakistan or India. This British policy opened the region up to conflict over the princely state of Kashmir and two others. The territorial dispute over Kashmir led to the First Kashmir War in 1947. This paper attempts to explain this conflict using different levels of analysis. This paper first explains the historical context of the war to show the causes of the war. Then this paper goes on to explain the war using different levels to analysis to determine that dyadic levels and individual decision making levels all explain the First Kashmir War occurred. The steps to war theory, rational choice, and psychological models all help to explain why Pakistan and India decided went to war over the Kashmir Region.
Following the partition of British India, the princely regions had to decide whether to accede into India or Pakistan. Kashmir was led by a Hindu monarch, Maharaja Hari Singh, and he ruled over a majority Muslim population (Ganguly 15). For this reason, Maharaja had a difficult time deciding which state to join. This indecision frustrated Pakistan and pro-Pakistani forces within Kashmir, and rebellions broke out in the Poonch region of Kashmir in October 1947. The First Kashmir War began on 22 October, 1947 with the invasion by Pakistani forces into the Kashmir region
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Disputes over land seem to be a catalyst for almost every hostility and war since the dawn of time. The addition of politics and religion into the matter only serves to aggravate an already tense situation. Kashmir knows this all too well. The conflict between Hindus and Muslims seems to be an ever reoccurring battle. This is also evidenced in population battles. Hindus make up the social majority of the population of India by almost eighty percent. Feelings of tension and uneasiness are a natural reaction to being dominated by a majority and are a problem unto itself.
Many people believe that in the 1940’s most of India’s problems involving independence was to do with divisions within India rather than British imperialism. In this essay I will be looking at both points of view and finally giving my opinion. I will be using three sources also to help me show both sides of the story. I will also be using my further knowledge to add a wider range of knowledge.
The ongoing conflict between India and Pakistan has been the subject of speculation and study by political scientists and historians for a number of years. The ethnic conflict seems to have been sparked at the very beginning in 1947, when the British used Muslim and Hindu mercenaries against each other before the area finally split into today’s countries of India and Pakistan (Spiegel et al. 2015, 185). The timeline since then has been full of conflicts, both major and minor. Brutal tactics used by security forces and a high rate of unemployment have added to the issue (BBC News 2016).
India and Pakistan have been at odds for over seven decades since the partition that caused each to define itself in opposition to the other, and they have fought four wars since. The primary point of contention between the two countries is the Kashmir dispute, which dates back to 1947. After the Indian subcontinent divided, there was the issue of 650 states existing within the two newly independent countries. These states, which were each run by separate monarchies, had the choice to decide which country to join, or of remaining independent. In practice, the restive population of each province proved decisive. Although many princes wanted their territories to remain independent states, which would have meant hereditary monarchies and no
Felling abused, discontent, and suffering from rash syncretism, the well-established Sepoys of the powerful British East India Company had a lot of motive to rebel against the greedy “empire on which the sun never sets.” It was fitting timing in which, the character and policies of their colonial rule caught up to the storied regime in a sweep of unwavering rebellion. For years, the British conquered the country bit by bit implicating their values stemming from their new feelings of superiority. The Mughal Empire was sent through years of change in policy. British views towards world order created many economic and cultural frictions among these empires in Hindustan. The hostile Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a product of the unpredictable greed and feelings of superiority of the British and led to rash changes in the way empires were operated economically and religiously.
The years subsequent the war, Britain kept their promise to India. In return for military labor and free access to commodities throughout the war, Britain would relinquished their hold on the territory thus, allowing it its freedom. In 1947, British India was partitioned into ‘India and Pakistan’ and soon after, was given its independence as a solitary state apart from Pakistan. Although this was what the Indian Independence Movement aspired for, violence between Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus quickly arose (Pierce). The conflict sparked what became the determining factor in the separation of the two states, independently India, and Pakistan. India and its neighboring regions were flooded with mass exodus, people who believed that a Hindu India, and a Muslim/Sikh Pakistan was the best possible way to begin independence packed their things and left, seeking the land of their religious majority. Over 14.5 million people crossed borders. Nearby in Burma (what is modern day Myanmar), Japan had invaded with the assumption that they could easily take hold of the Burmese colony, which was incredibly blessed with
Indeed, the Partition of India and Pakistan, a decision made by lawmakers far from the front-lines, unleashed an episode of brutal depravity that might be unmatched in recent history. Growing tensions between Hindus and Muslims throughout the 1940s gave a ride for the desire for a Muslim state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who is regarded as the father of Pakistan, believed that a unified nation would only lead to marginalization of Muslims and, eventually, violence and civil war. An independent state seemed a solution to this danger. However looking at the grave situation of Pakistan today, was this a good decision or not is a highly debatable point of discussion running past the minds of
Waltz suggests that though it is important that states arm themselves and be ready for possible hostile actions, most states will attempt to work within the post WWII status quo that exists because their ultimate goal is survival and they have better odds of surviving by thinking strategically and cooperating with other states at times while still having the ability to defend themselves when needed . In this scenario the military capabilities serve not as a tool that states would use in an offensive capability, rather as a deterrent from potential threats. A particular example of this is the relation between Pakistan and India. Pakistan has a population which is around 15% that of India and an economy which is slightly larger than a tenth of the Indian economy . Given the history of conflicts and disputes between the two nations it is no surprise that relationships are often tense and prone to deterioration. India’s rapid economic growth coupled with a large military expenditure and nuclear capability have been great concerns to Pakistani policymakers and it is evident that Pakistan would not be able to ensure its defense against India using conventional means. The lack of security was a great cause of concern for the Pakistani government and the newly acquired nuclear weapons by India further tipped the scale in India’s favour. This left Pakistan feeling
The first war between India and Pakistan, which started in October 1947, was one of the first major events that led to the modern-day hatred between these two nations. British policy stated that the numerous princely states would have to
The 1935 Government Act of India proposes more governmental reforms and allows for an assembly made up of Indian but it is rejected by Indian nationalists who want dominion status granted to them immediately. Beginning in 1946, the Muslim League begins to advocate for an independent Muslim state, which causes widespread panic. India receives its independence from Great Britain in 1947 but as their last major act the British governors separate India into two new countries: India and Pakistan. Many people are forced to leave their homes in order to get to the new country and refugees become an issue in both countries. Widespread fighting breaks out along the borders as people try to get to the country that corresponds with their religion. The new governments struggle to agree on who will get what parts of the natural resources, military and financial resources along with the regions of Jammu and Kashmir. Great Britain sold Kashmir to a maharajah during the colonial era and as they were withdrawing, gave him the option to going to either country. Most other states sided with religions but Kashmir was ruled by a Hindu yet had a predominantly Muslim population. The maharajah hesitates and is forced to leave the region. He signs over the territory to India and Pakistan sends troops to protect the Muslims in that area. War breaks out and continues for three years until a ceasefire is declared and
Kashmir is conflict territory after the partition of India and Pakistan. Conflict is not only between India and Pakistan but also India and the religious militants. Religious Militants are conducting a jihad to govern by the religious law. Historically, Kashmir included Sufis Muslim not orthodox Muslim. Numerous international events had influenced in the growth of Islamic fundamentalism in Kashmir. Jihad is not originally from Kashmir but they are foreign militancy bought during the end of the Soviet –Afghanistan War. Additionally, they are trained in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pakistan Inter service Intelligence helped them to incorporate into organized militant groups. Pakistan helped Jihad group with full moral,
India and Pakistan are built from the same foundational nation of India before Partition; thus, their histories are irrevocably bound together despite their contemporary violence and distrust towards each other. India was once colonized by the British for three centuries, known as the “jewel in the British crown” for its wealth in resources and spices. Regarding India’s independence from the British Empire in 1947, a bitter victory emerged as the Partition of India
India thinks that Kashmir is not the issue for an international concern and India does not consider UN’s take on any political action over Kashmir. India’s apprehension of Kashmir is reasonable somehow because India has fought three times with Pakistan regarding Kashmir’s issue. On the contrary, resolution does not come through military action. According to India, if India is ready to establish Kashmir as a democratic province with all the privileges of an autonomous, there is no guarantee to Kashmir will be under the Indian union. Because there are lots of terrorist groups are fighting against India. Pakistan is supporting them by providing materials as well as financial backing (Schofield, V. 2000).
The Kashmir dispute dates from 1947. The partition of the Indian sub-continent along spiritual lines diode to the formation of India and Asian country. However, there remained the problem of over 650 states, run by princes, existing within the 2 freshly freelance countries.
The well-known novel ‘Train to Pakistan’ initiates study on theme of partition. This story opens the phase of political hatred, violence and sectarianism in a brilliant and realistic way. Related to those decisive or fateful days, which were brought by the British Raj followed by destruction, death and deracination for the north of the subcontinent; Khushwant Singh refers to the fact that India might have gained independence then, but the price they paid for it was ‘Partition’. The strength and the power of unity were deliberately divided between the two nations. It depicts the pitiful tale of individuals and communities suffered in the revolution of Partition. ‘Tran to Pakistan’ illustrates the agony suffered on both sides of the political boundaries-India and Pakistan after the partition.