Causes and Treatment for Diabetes

797 WordsJun 16, 20184 Pages
Diabetes mellitus is a disease marked by high levels of blood glucose or blood sugar. Chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin production or secretion, insulin action, or both. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, non-traumatic lower extremities amputations, and new cases of blindness among adults in the United States. It is also known as a major cause of heart disease and stroke. It is the known as the seventh leading cause of death in the United States (CDC, 2011). Every time we eat, our food is digested, and converted into glucose or sugar. As the blood sugar level rise, the…show more content…
Normal fasting glucose plasma is less than 100mg/dL (LeRoith, Taylor, & Olefsky, 2004). Typical symptoms of diabetes are excessive urination (polyuria) which occurs because of glycosuria, excessive thirst (polydipsia) which occurs in response to dehydration, and excessive hunger (Polyphagia), which occurs because of persistent loss of calories as a result of glycosuria and the possible effects of diabetes on satiety signals in the brain (Niewoehner, 2004). Other typical signs and symptoms of Diabetes Type 1 are weight loss, fatigue, increase frequency of infections, and rapid onset. Type 2 Diabetes is also known as adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes. It results from a progressive secretory defect of the pancreatic Beta cell on the background of insulin resistance (Meeking, 2011). Insulin resistance is a disorder in which the cells do not use insulin properly; as the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce insulin. The most common risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes are old age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, and physical activity. Natural history of type 2 diabetes is variable resulting from long duration of silent hyperglycemia (Meeking, 2011). Diet is the basic part of management of diabetes. The goal of dietary treatment is to ensure weight control, allowing good, adequate glycemic control with blood glucose levels as close to normal
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