1.1. Background to the study:
The construction industry is one the main industries in the words which is growing rapidly. The industry generates employment opportunities and economic growth through creating foreign and local investment opportunities (M. Agung, 2009). In spite of these contributions in nations economic, it has some drawbacks such as environmental pollutions and degradation (Johnson & David, 2008). Construction waste is one of the single largest waste stream which is estimated approximately 50 per cent of all materials used worldwide. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the construction wastes. Construction is a vital connection to the infrastructure and growth of industry all around the world. Building …show more content…
1989). Waste minimization in construction industry is significant not only from efficiency point of view, but also, nowadays, concern has been growing about the adverse effect of the waste of building materials on the environment. This kind of waste typically accounts for between 15 and 30% of urban waste, also it is difficult to recycle building materials due to high levels of contamination and a large degree of heterogeneity and often there is insufficient space for its disposal in large cities. (Brooks et al.1994; Bossink and Brouwers 1996; Forsythe and Marsden 1999) Moreover, reduction in availability of future materials energy as well as increasing demands on the transportation system can be the consequences of high levels of construction waste. Wyatt (1978) Considering some building materials and components which use large amounts of non renewable sources of energy, as well as resources that are in danger of depletion, such as timber, sand, and crushed stone (Bossink and Brouwers 1996).
1.2. Statement of the problem:
A wide range of construction companies have been faced with the serious threat that construction waste has been imposed to their profits, which is the reason for the existence of most companies. However, most firms still have no serious attention into the identifying the factors that contribute to
the increase of waste in the construction industry. Many resources
Construction projects use a significant amount of materials and supplies. When these materials are used in a socially and environmentally responsible way, it improves your personal relationship with the environment and reduces your impact on the earth.
Whether you are tearing down a roof on a residential home or you are renovating a commercial site, these processes produce a lot of waste. With increased waste around the area, your construction site is more prone to accidents. Beyond the fact that accidents can cause accidents, they also expose your business to liability risks. When you reduce the amount of waste from your project, then you reduce the possibility of risks.
The Construction Industry Institute estimates that there is up to 57% non-value added effort or outright waste in previous construction business models. That translates to over $600 Billion in waste and costly delays in the construction industry each year.
The construction sector drives a country’s economy. In Australia, the construction industry is a major role of economic growth and is the fourth largest contributor to Australia’s gross domestic product (GDP) (ABS 2010). By 2056, economy activity is estimated to increase five times, energy consumption and manufacturing activity to triple with the population growth increase by over 50% (Akadiri, Chinyio and Olomolaiye 2012). With construction industry affecting the economy, ultimately, it also affects the social, cultural and environmental aspects of the country.
There are a variety of different factors that influence the design process. The first one is the client’s needs and amount of money they have, the design has to suit the client’s needs so that the design meets what they like. Therefore the design will need to change to suit their needs. Their design needs to be suitable to the amount of money that they are willing to spend so that it is affordable, this then reduces the chance of abandoning the project. The client can influence the design by wanting the latest taste and technology however this all comes down to the cost. Secondly the more knowledge and experience that the people involved have the more chance the design process runs smoothly as everyone will understand what to do.
We can apply advanced framing techniques in construction to prevent waste. This can helps use to reduce the cost of construction. The construction complies with the standard building codes and is highly energy efficient, which means they are affordable, easy to maintain and are extremely long lasting. (Advantages of Using Sustainable Building Materials, n.d.). Thus, it will helps to reduce maintenance cost of house. Besides that, with proper design for water and electrical flow to meet requirement sustainable criteria, we can increase the efficiency of that both utilities and reduce utilities cost. (Dick, 2014)
(ASBEC) suggests that the building sector is directly responsible for around 24% of the total energy use. At present this is split fairly evenly between the residential and commercial building sectors. Reducing energy use
Type I – the least combustible building type and considered to be “fire-resistive”. The two most common methods of constructing Type I buildings are by using reinforced concrete or a protected steel frame. The structural members (walls, floors, columns, beams, and roof) are constructed of non-combustible or limited combustible materials that have a specified fire resistance.. These non-combustible materials are defined by the building code that is adopted. The primary fuel load is composed of the contents of the structure.
The definition of waste is ‘ any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard ’ (UK. Department for Environment, Food and Rural, 2012). Unlike other EU countries having a large amount of waste such as Bulgaria, the UK has a comparatively less amount because practical strategies and policy for waste management were implemented effectively. In recent years, the amount of waste has decreased slightly due to stable change of it in construction sector which is the major producer of waste in the UK and is defined as ‘construction contracting industry, provision of construction related professional services and construction related products and materials’ (UK. Department for Business Innovation & Skills, 2013). In spite of this, waste put into landfill has reduced rapidly. Long time is
from embodied greenhouse gases of building materials and 6-8% from transportation of building materials. On the other hand, Yan et al. (2010) did not take into consideration some project phases as maintenance phase, operation phase, and deconstruction/demolition phase. Tang et al. (2013) demonstrated the relationship between project duration, project cost and greenhouse gases emissions. They presented a methodology for construction management practices in the pre-planning stage to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without increasing contractor's financial burden and causing a delay in the contractor's schedule.
With great pleasure I submit this semester paper that we have been assigned as an essential requirement for this course, Sustainable Construction. I found the study to be quite interesting, beneficial and knowledgeable. I have tried my best to prepare an effective and creditable paper.
As concerns of climate change and global warming rises, reducing the impact on environment and human health have became the priorities to consider before the construction of buildings. Therefore, the concept of sustainable building (also known as green building, green construction)was brought up, aiming to create structures which is environmentally responsible and source-efficient during its lifespan.  Compared to conventional buildings, sustainable buildings are advantageous from many aspects, such as durability, comfort, security, productivity and economy.
In this study identification of relevant literature has been done in several stages. In the first stage, the relevant keywords have been used to identify the appropriate literature existed in Scopus library. These keywords were “Spoil”, “spoil Management”, “excavation”, “Construction” and “Material Handling”. There were several studies discussing waste, waste management and construction and waste which were excluded in this study to prevent the inception of treating the material as waste in a construction environment. In the second stage, abstracts of identified literature in the last stage have been reviewed carefully
The database consolidation infrastructure build phase also referred to as the construction phase is a daunting phase where multiple factors will be under consideration depending on the system requirements associated with the databases and supporting applications including storage, CPU, cache, RAM and most importantly elastic scalability for future growth or database retirement. Furthermore, considerations of migrating to the Cloud at a future date cannot be bypassed or overlooked.