Diabetes Mellitus ( Dm ) Is One Of The Most Prevalent Diseases Affecting The Endocrine System

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting the endocrine system. The incidence of DM in the United States has reached over 29 million citizens (Diabetes Latest, 2014). Of the 29 million, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) estimate that 1 in 4 are unaware of their condition. DM can be categorized into three different diseases: Type One, Type Two, and Gestational. Types one and two are diagnosed anytime throughout a patient’s life; gestational is DM that is diagnosed during pregnancy. This paper will focus on types one and two. DM is a disease that presents many challenges for the patient. Through an effective medication regimen and healthy lifestyle modifications, the patient is able to live a…show more content…
Insulin is a protein that is produced by the pancreas. The production occurs in the beta-cells located in an area of the pancreas known as the Islet of Langerhans. Insulin is essential to the regulation of the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It promotes the absorption of glucose into the skeletal muscles and fat; this absorption into the fat causes the accumulation of adipose tissue leading to obesity (Sonksen & Sonksen, 2000). The hallmark symptoms of DM are often called the three P’s: polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia. The body’s inability to absorb the glucose results in excessive levels in the blood. These excessive levels result in the kidney’s attempt to excrete it. This excretion of glucose is achieved by, polyuria, excessive urination. With the polyuria, the body is signaled to replace the fluid lost; this leads to polydipsia, excessive thirst. As the body is unable to properly metabolize carbohydrates and fats, the hunger increases due to the body’s perceived malnourishment; this increase in appetite and eating is known as polyphagia. This cycle continues in an attempt to return blood glucose levels to normal. If homeostasis is not achieved then conditions can worsen. The body will begin to break down fatty acids for its energy production; this process is known as ketogenesis (Smith, 2015). Ketogenesis results in ketones becoming present in the patient’s urine; often times this is the
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