Fingerprint recognition is one of the oldest and most Researched fields of biometrics. Biometrics is the automated use of physiological or behavioral characteristics to determine or verify identity data derived from direct measurement of a part of the human body. In areas of business, the identities of personnel and employees needs to be verified .This is required for attendance .Thus there is restriction on the access to computers for unauthorized users since there are no shared or compromised passwords between the employees. Hundred of years back, fingerprints were used in the forensics and crime branch investigations with the help of automatic fingerprint identification systems. A fingerprint is a distinctive or identifying mark …show more content…
This kind of minutiae-based fingerprint recognition systems consists of two steps, i.e., minutiae extraction and minutiae matching. In the minutiae matching process, the minutiae feature of a given fingerprint is compared with the minutiae template, and the matched minutiae will be found out. If the matching score exceeds a predefined threshold, the two fingerprints can be regarded as belonging to a same finger.Such algorithms are the common ways to utilize the minutiae template for fingerprint recognition. In various works, the authors have often showed that these kinds of methods cannot provide enough distinguishing abilities for large-scale fingerprint identification tasks hence the need for edge detection arises.In our study we have tried to integrate the edge detection technique with this minutia based method and tried to improve on the verification results of these algorithms. Edge Detection is used to curtail the patterns found in a fingerprint image so that weget only the most important information. Therefore the edge detected from its original image contains major information which requires less amount of memory to store. Whenever there isspectacular and evident change of pixels in the binaryimage for example, from grey to white, we say an edge is present. Edge detection is a non trivial task because it is often very difficult to establish if the change in intensity between the adjacent pixels is sufficient enough to be considered as an edge or not, hence
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Biometrics technology aims at utilizing major and distinctive characteristics such as behavioral or biological, for the sake of positively indentifying people. With the help of a combination of hardware and specific identifying sets of rules, a basic human attribute, automated biometric recognition mimics to distinguish and categorize other people as individual and unique. But the challenges surrounding biometrics are great as well.
Biometrics is a method of identifying an individual based on characteristics that they possess, typically physiological features such as a fingerprint, hand, iris, retina, face, voice, and even DNA. Some methods of biometrics security even use multiple physiological features or multimodal biometrics to provide superior security than a single form of biometrics can provide. Why are biometrics important in the field of information security? Biometrics provide a remarkable amount of security for information because biometrics are unique to each person, and thus cannot be lost, copied, or shared with another individual. This security allows for biometrics to provide a means to reliability authenticate personnel. The importance of biometrics can be further divided into the history of biometrics and why it was devised, past implementations of biometrics, current implementations of biometrics, and future implementations of biometrics.
The use of fingerprinting as a means of identification was born out of the need of law enforcement officials to have permanent records that could determine if a convict had been previously arrested or imprisoned. Before the advent of fingerprinting, law enforcement used a number of different methods to try to accomplish this. Ancient civilizations would tattoo or physically maim prisoners. In more recent times, daguerreotyping (that is, photographing) was used, but proved to be less than reliable, because people had the ability to dramatically alter their appearance (Skopitz). As a result, this method too, became obsolete with the discovery of fingerprinting, an absolutely infallible
Technology is always improving, and new software is always being developed. One of these new technologies that have been developed is biometrics. Biometrics is the process by which a person's unique physical and other traits are detected and recorded by an electronic device or system as means of confirming identity (Dictionary.com, 2013). In recent years, the FBI has employed new biometrics technology.
“SecureFinger”, some actual examples of fingerprint-based personal identification systems and large-scale fingerprint identification systems(AFIS). Fingerprint User Interface (FpUI), a new type of application of this technology used to enhance human-machine interactions will also be considered.
The final main biometric technology used is fingerprint recognition. This is definitely the most widely used biometric technology. This type of biometric has been used for many, many years. Because of this, fingerprint recognition has been known as the most primary and accurate identification method used to identify a person. The modern fingerprint recognition is all done electronically. There are two main ways of analyzing fingerprints electronically. The first plots points on the ridges of a person’s fingers that enable the computer to compare to different fingerprints. The second method uses patterns of a fingerprint
The automated Fingerprint Identification System is also known as the AFIS within the law enforcement division (FBI, 2010). This system is an important element in the criminal justice system as some of its features encompass the storing of data, encoding, and fingerprint and facial comparison through graphics and other techniques. Law officials many centuries ago in the pursuit of positively identifying someone suspected of guilt have long used fingerprints techniques. Fingerprinting is also used in branches of our government, and in the Pentagon, the authentication method of fingerprints is used permit access to specified zones inside the building. Fingerprints are an effective and very precise method of identification purposes that does not pose
“Fingerprint recognition is one of the divorce inference using the impressions made by the minute ridge formations or patterns found on the fingertips. No two people have exactly the same arrangement of the ridge patterns, and the remaining patterns of any one individual unchanged. Fingerprints infallible provide a means of personal identification. Other personal characteristics may change, but not fingerprints”. (1)
In terms of classification of finger prints, the actual trace itself can be distinguished by analyzing the finger using the accepted terms for the patterns that all fingers exhibit. These include “whorls” which is the circular shape, ridges and ridge endings which are unique in almost every way and also loops which are the elongated bend shape which can originate from the left or the right of the finger. Other, more rare characteristics of the finger print is the arch which is slightly raised lines and tented arches which form a triangular looking fingerprint.
According to Jain Anil, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method which has been successfully used in numerous applications and though Bertillon’s anthropometry raised many valid points in forensic science, it was discarded and replaced by the fingerprint identification method after Bertillon’s death 1914.
Every time somebody touches something, they leave behind a unique signature that forever links them to that object. This link is their fingerprints, which are unique to every person, for no two people have the same set, not even family members or identical twins. Palms and toes also leave prints behind, but these are far less commonly found during crime scene investigations. Therefore, fingerprints provide an identification process that is applicable to background checks, biometric security, mass disaster identification, and most importantly, crime scene investigations. Fingerprints are so differentiated because they are made up of distinct patterns of ridges and furrows on the fingers. The ridges are the “raised” portions of the prints, and the furrows are the “recessed” portions. This perceived uniqueness has led some people to falsely accept fingerprint analysis as absolute scientific fact. Although overall fingerprints are reliable, there are definitely situations where their accuracy can come into question.
Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physical or behavioral characteristic (2001). Essentially, biometric security technologies are used to accurately identify individuals on a unique trait. The most common biometric security techniques used currently are: signature
The technology is many years away from development. Blood pulses on a finger can be measured by new biometric systems. This technology is currently under development. Nail bed identification is based on identifying distinct spatial arrangement beneath the fingernail. Gait recognition is another technology which is under development. This recognizes individuals by their distinctive walk and captures a sequence of images to derive and analyze motion characteristics. The technology is currently under development and its complete potential and limitations can be fully assessed. Many biometric identification systems are being developed and tested (Woodward, 2005).
The obtained image is applied to a thinning algorithm and subsequent minutiae extraction. The methodology of image preprocessing and minutiae extraction is discussed. The simulations are performed in the MATLAB environment to evaluate the performance of the implemented algorithms. Results and observations of the fingerprint images are presented at the end.