Hpv Associated Anal And Oral Cancers

1465 Words6 Pages
HPV-associated anal and oral cancers are increasing. The reason is still unclear although sexual behavior changes in the general population are postulated as one of the factors. The incidence is drastically higher in specific risk groups, such as men who have sex with men, and HIV-1 infected individuals. Interestingly, anal cancer is predominant in women while a higher incidence of oral cancer is found in men. This review gives a brief summary of epidemic, risk factors, mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of these two HPV-associated cancers. Most sexually active individuals will have detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) at least once in their lifetime. 14 million people are infected annually, and 79 million people have the prevalent infection. Approximate 5% of the cancers globally are HPV-associated anogenital or oral cancers (1). HPV is transmitted frequently between partners; more frequent transmission has been reported from females to males than from males to females (2). The incidence of anal and oral cancers related to HPV is increasing in the general population and is growing even faster among individuals who are immunocompromised because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (3, 4). Two prophylactic vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix) have been approved for a decade. Recently, the nonavalent vaccine including additional high-risk HPV types is promised to provide more coverage against cervical cancers (5). The HPV vaccine is recommended
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