Human Resource Management ( Hr )

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Human Resource Management (HR) is a function in an organisation aimed at maximizing employee performance in relation to the employer 's set standards and strategic objectives. The primary focus of HR is concentrated upon the management of employees, and on the policies and systems within and outside the organisation. (Boxall & Purcell, 2011). “Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) aims to align the functions and processes of HR with the strategic aims and objectives and competitive advantage of an organisation.” (Hartel, Fujimoto, Strybosch & Fitzpatrick, 2006). After all, the key characteristic of HR is ‘integration.’ The role of HR and HR Professionals can be linked to four main SHRM theories, namely: Jackson & Schuler (1995), Kochan & Barocci (1985), Klatt, Murdich & Schuster (1978) and Lundy & Cowling (1996).
According to Jackson & Schuler’s theory; “a variety of macro-level environmental characteristics influence the adoption of particular organisational HR practices, policies and philosophies.” (Hartel et al., 2006). Therefore macro-level environmental factors such as: laws and regulations, politics and culture all need to be considered by the HR department or HR Professionals as these factors will ultimately influence the organisation’s performance and overall success. Jackson and Schuler’s model indicates how aspects such as the organisation’s size, structure, strategy, technology and life cycle stage determine what and how information is interpreted, how
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