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Introduction. Food Additives Have Been Used For Centuries

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INTRODUCTION Food additives have been used for centuries to help preserve foods, improve flavor and texture, and enhance the nutritional value in food. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has a list of over 3,000 food additives that are safe for consumption by humans. (1)
The first lab experiment conducted used food additives to compare the physical and chemical properties of three different thickening agents: corn starch, modified food starch, and guar gum. Guar gum is a thickening agent, but also an emulsifier. Emulsifiers are used to keep ingredients from separating. Corn starch is a flavorless powder that comes from corn kernels, and has caloric value which is made up of mainly carbohydrates. Modified food starch is a chemically
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Sample 1 was frozen orange juice from concentrate, without pulp. Sample 2 was 100% juice with pulp, not from concentrate. Sample 3 was organic 100% orange juice blended with concentrate.
The final experiment was conducted to understand how enzymes are used in food, specifically cheese, production. Enzymes are proteins that act as a catalyst and bring about chemical reactions. (4) The enzyme Rennin, which comes from the lining of a cow’s stomach, causes the protein in milk to coagulate. This coagulation is what forms curds in order to make cheese. In the production of cheese, milk is treated with buttermilk to lower the pH. Before being treated, the pH of milk is around 6.7 which makes it slightly acidic. The range of pH for milk used to make cheese would be between 4.1 to 5.3. (5)
METHODS
In the first experiment, each group of students was given 2 sample vials, 20 mL of vinegar, and 4 mL of vegetable oil. Also weighed out using weight boats was 0.3g of cornstarch and 0.3g of modified food starch. Using a pipette, the student added 10 mL of vinegar and 2 mL of vegetable oil to each vial. Both vials were labeled and shaken vigorously for 20 seconds. Observations were made and recorded, as shown in Table 1. After this, the students obtained 2 more vials and added the same amount of vinegar and vegetable oil to each one. Guar gum was weighed out into two separate containers, then 0.2g was added to one vial, and 2.0g was added to the other. The students once again shook
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