We have decided to research techniques to better engineer medicines. Making medicine more personalized and tailoring them to a patient’s body chemistry can greatly reduce the risk of side effects and can make treatment more efficient. This can be done by using information about the patient’s genetic makeup and where the disease is localized in order to target the infected cells specifically. We have decided to narrow down our research on cancer, specifically leukemia. Cancer can result from any number of genetic mutations and these malfunctions can lead to an unmanageable division of abnormal cells that then leads to the growth and spread of tumors. Leukemia is a type of cancer originating in the bone marrow. Because leukemias are cancers of the blood, it does not create any solid tumors. Instead, the cancerous leukemia cells circulate in the blood, going virtually everywhere. Diagnosis is commonly made by blood tests or bone marrow biopsy. However, it is difficult to detect leukemia early on since patients with slow-growing types of leukemia don’t present with symptoms until much later, making treatment difficult and less effective. Furthermore, the treatments currently being used, for example stem cells transplants, have a number of side effects such as infertility, chronic fatigue, thyroid dysfunction and the probable risk of developing a second cancer. The challenge, therefore, is to modify the means for early detection of cancer, improving personalized
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This discussion question is based on a case study. As in all case studies, review the facts of the case and consider the various steps of the nursing process in order to address the critical thinking questions.
Targeted therapy, which first became available in the late 1990s, has had a significant impact on the treatment of cancer. Currently, because of advancement in the field of technology, various types of therapies are discovered to treat cancer. In this essay, targeted therapy is defined as a therapy in which various drugs or other substances are used to recognize and kill the cancerous cells without harming the normal cell (National cancer institute, 2014). Effectiveness refers to the degree in
The ELISA test can also be used to detect antibodies that are produced in response to a specific antigen. Using information about how you completed this ELISA experiment, outline a procedure for testing for antibodies in the blood.
Cancer is a term used for diseases in which irregular cells divide without any control and have the capability to penetrate and infect normal body tissue through the blood and lymph system. Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the United States, exceeded barely by heart disease. According to the CDC Cancer Statistics and Data, there were more than 1.45 million people diagnosed with various kind of cancer between 1999 and 2007 and out of those more than 562,000 people died due to cancer (cdc.gov, 2012). Currently there are more than 200 different types of cancer that have been discovered. Cancer could be
Throughout life, many individuals experience difficulties due to growing up in everyday life. While going in depth of the human life, it is discovered that there are many diseases and disorders that affect humans’ everyday functions. A very popular disease that has traumatically affected the human body is cancer. Cancer is a disease that spreads throughout your body in many ways. The purpose of cancer is to attach to a blood cell in your body and cause a plague within itself, causing the body to initially shut down and die. This disease contains many forms and have many causes to it. However its main goal is to destroy the human body.
Cancer, Lung Disease, Diabetes, and Brain Disease- these are all conditions that if diagnosed too late or are severe enough can quickly lead to a person’s death. In fact, cancer research done in the UK in 2012 determined that 46% of all cancer patients are diagnosed too late, vastly reducing their likelihood of survival. I aspire to help such patients in the future by developing treatments and diagnosing these diseases early in their progression so that these people's lifespans can be elongated.
Long times ago, even during the 19th century, scientist all over the world had started to find the cure for cancer, one of the most feared disease you can ever imagine, simply because you don’t know what the cause and how to turn it off. Cancer started
Some of traditional drugs may be effective in patients whose cancers have a specific molecular target, and not for other patients. To solve this problem of patient-specificity, pharmaceutical research have seen the expansion of individually tailored cancer treatment, which is an application of targeted therapy, and this is where biopharmaceuticals are. As an increasing part of the population is diagnosed with cancer and as these patients live longer, increasing care will be given to patients who have received these drugs. Moreover, in the case of cancer therapy, those drugs and especially with mABs are a promise of less side effects : recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to genetically engineer an antibody to reduce the risk of host immune response.
Many doctors, physicians, researchers and biotech companies--including the revolutionary Seattle Genetics research facility--are now turning to antibody-assisted cancer treatments and precisely targeted cures instead of treating cancer with a cocktail of chemicals and radiation that generate risky side effects and damage the healthy tissue that patients need to recover. Cancers are among the most frightening and difficult-to-treat illnesses. Ranked as the leading cause of death and disability, cancer is actually an umbrella term that covers many different diseases. Each person faces a unique disease because cancers interact with the body's existing cells, so each case has a
1. Introduction and Problem Statement: Cancer has a major societal impact in the United States and across the globe. In 2015, an estimated 1,658,370 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in United States, and 589,430 people are estimated to die of the disease. Unfortunately, low cancer cell availability in human samples is a current barrier for early disease detection. There is an unmet medical need to improve methods of early cancer detection so that patients can receive treatment before cancer metastasizes to other areas of the body, resulting in better health outcomes.
It is no secret that cancer is leading cause of death in the world. It was estimated that in 2012, 14.1 million new cases of cancer occurred worldwide and 8.2 million people died as a result of cancer . Cancer prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate, yet the progress of treatment has been slow, with benefits of treatment being measured in only months or even weeks. Most patients with a specific type of cancer at a certain stage will receive the exact same form of treatment, but it has been made clear that while the treatment works well for some, it does not for a significant amount of others. The treatment that patients receive today is based on
Personalized medicine is the novel medicine of the millennium where medicine used is determined via a person’s genetic makeup and how the tumor grows using personalized medicine. Personalized cancer treatments hold great promises as it involves selection of treatments based on a person’s unique genetic makeup and the genetic makeup of the tumor. Nowadays, a person receives a standard treatment plan with specific personalized cancer treatments which tailors for the right cancers.
Every year millions of people are being freshly diagnosed with cancer and a healthy amount is diagnosed with some form of myeloid leukaemia. Few decades ago treatment options for myeloid leukaemia were not so diverse and mortality rate amongst patients were very high. Things have changed dramatically due to the introduction of various treatment options; patients are being able to lead a healthy life prior to their medication period. Though conventional chemotherapy is still used but there are a variety of drugs that have been introduced which could replace chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation in near future as these new generation of drugs have a very specific mode of action and they have a minimal side effect. For example Tyrosine Kinase
Despite the promise of such approaches, a number of difficulties remain to be overcome, the most important of which is the need for more efficient systems of gene delivery. No gene transfer system is 100% efficient, unless germ-line therapy is contemplated. During the past two decades, there have been major advances in our understanding of how cancer develops, proving that cancer has a genetic basis (2). A series of genetic abnormalities that accumulate in one cell may result in a pattern of abnormal clonal proliferation. Our growing understanding of the genetic basis of cancer offers new opportunities for the molecular prevention and treatment of cancer. There has been a