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Symptoms and Treatments of Major Depressive Disorder Essay

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What is major depressive disorder? Major depressive disorder is a psychiatric disorder documented in the DSM. Major depressive disorder interferes with an individual's normal functioning in everyday life and causes pain to the person with this disorder and to those close to the person. Individuals with major depressive disorder cannot just "pull themselves out" of this depression on their own and the symptoms accompanied with this disorder can last for weeks, months, and even years (Butcher, Mineka, and Hooley, 2013, p. 221-22). Recognizing the symptoms is critical because most people need treatment to get better.
As with other mental disorders, there are special ethical issues to take into consideration. When an individual's
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2013, p. 232). “This is what led to the psychodynamic idea that depression is anger turned inward” (Butcher et al. 2013, p. 232). Based on Beck’s cognitive model of depression (1967), “certain kinds of early experiences can lead to the formation of dysfunctional assumptions that leave a person vulnerable to depression later in life if certain critical incidents (stressors) activate those assumptions” (Butcher et al. 2013, p. 233). The helplessness and hopelessness theories of depression (1974, 1975) “states that when animals or humans find that they have no control over aversive events (such as shock), they learn that they are helpless, which makes them unmotivated to try to respond in the future” (Butcher et al. 2013, p. 235). In the 1970s and 1980s, a number of theorists developed behavioral theories of depression, “proposing that people become depressed either when their responses no longer produce positive reinforcement or when their rate of negative reinforcements increases” (Butcher et al. 2013, p. 232). “Nolen-Hoeksema’s ruminative response style cognitive theory of depression (e.g., 1991, 2000; Nolen-Hoeksema & Hilt, 2009) focuses on different kinds of responses that people have when they experience feelings and symptoms of sadness and distress, and
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