The learning Theory and its importance
There exist several theories that support learning. These are the conceptual guidelines and frameworks that explain how information from a tutor is absorbed by students, processed and then retained.
According to Fontana, (1984) in behaviorism theories of learning, a learner is born blank, and they only obtain their behavior from the environment. He or she is perceived to be passive responding to the environment he or she operates in. Fontana adds that a learner’s behavior changes according to what the environment impacts on him or her. Both negative and positive environmental factors shape individuals to adopt behavior. This is very important to the tutor, since he or she will have a guide n what best environment will support best behavior in students, and which one to avoid.
The cognitive theory is also one of the theories in learning. It focuses on the mental process of the learner, to explain behavior. Nooteboom, (2009) analyses mental perceptions like learning, memory language use, thinking, creativity, and problem solving. Nooteboom also explains how these factors affect learning. He adds that effective learning will only take place if the learner is attentive. He analyses the memory status of a learner. This is very important to the teacher for he or she will be able to evaluate his or her class, and identify the status of the class in order to help those students with a lower memory catch up with those with higher memories and
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Psychology has revealed how the learning perspective is concerned with the environment and experiences leading to effects on a person’s actions. Within this perspective, behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors. B.F. Skinner once stated, I am sometimes asked, ‘Do you think of yourself as you think of the organisms you study?’ The answer is yes. So far as I know, my behavior at any given moment has been nothing more than the product of my genetic endowment, my personal history, and the current setting. (Skinner, 1983). In the average college classroom, behaviorism effects students’ way of learning in that their behavior is shaped by either positive or negative reinforcement.
Within the elementary classroom, there is a copious amount of rules, guidelines and considerations a teacher must take into account. Learning theories such as social, cognitive, and behavioral learning should be implemented to provide framework and boundaries for the children. When incorporating learning theories in the classroom, it is important to have a clear understanding of how they work and how they will benefit the child and the teacher. These particular theories allows the teacher to run an efficient and effective classroom from day one.
Learning, as defined by Slavin (2012), is “a change in an individual caused by experience” (p. 116). Learning can occur intentionally or unintentionally. All learning, however, is stimulated by something that is the learner (student) has encountered. As an instructor, your goal every day is to use the right stimuli to capture the student’s attention so they can absorb the knowledge you are trying to share.
Constructivism is the learning theory that focuses on observation by acquiring data and thereafter reexamining, altering, and updating information to be useful in the present time. Humans process experiences, knowledge, and conception of life based on their impressions of their past. As individuals experience an unfamiliar event, they will attempt to integrate it with their knowledge and past, therefore replacing old outdated or incorrect data with new more pertinent information (Kerka, 1997). This learning theory states that learning is an ongoing process and not about merely comprehending available data without questioning, processing, and updating previously learned information (Allen, 2005).
Behaviorism is one of the most used theories in education. Due to it can fit in both a classroom setting and at home. Educators had sought out the reason why for many years. But due to each child learns a different way so should the educator. Behaviorism was study by many great Psychologists over the years. Just to name some that had done work and publish books on the subject are, John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, Clark Hull, and B.F. Skinner.
The Learning Theory influences everyone’s culture, ethnicity, gender, and social status, by being from different geographical location and religious background everyone has a unique characteristic, when it comes to learning or problem solving. One of the most important events in a human’s life is the “Learning Theory”.
In Behaviorism, learning is a change in observable behavior. The environment causes behavior and there is a one-way correlation between the interactions among behavior, environment, and personal factors (Walsh, 2016). In Cognitivism, learning is related with distinct changes among states of knowledge rather than with changes in the odds of response. It focuses more on the notion of the learning process and the information is accepted, organized, saved, and restored by the brain. In the Social
For many of years, psychologists and theorists have studied and tracked what influences a human 's growth, learning, and overall development. Although there are many different views of why people may develop the way they do, there is no true "correct" answer. According to learning theorist, B.F Skinner, he believed that all human behavior was determined by environmental influences. This is what as known as behaviorism. "Skinner referred to his own philosophy as 'radical behaviorism ' and suggested that the concept of free will was simply an illusion. All human action, he instead believed, was the direct result of conditioning" (Cherry, 2005). Throughout this paper my focus will be on learning theories- specifically the concept of behaviorism.
Comprehension as a process is an intriguing phenomenon. The ability to understand a particular student is affected by inevitable factors such as age and intelligence of that individual. The method employed during teaching is a constant factor. The intelligence quotient varies between various individuals. It is, therefore, paramount to always employ an effective means of teaching. This entrusts a feeling of equity ascertaining that all students acquire a minimum preset level of comprehension of the subjected lesson. The forged policies and pedagogy is a by all means a basis of universal teaching that can encompass a qualitative learning process. This can be achieved by several factors such as learning some characteristics of
Theories of learning are 1) Classical conditioning (involuntary behavior) where learning is by association (Pavlov, 1927). 2) Operant conditioning (voluntary behavior) where learning is by positive or negative reinforcement [stimuli-response] (Skinner, 1938). 3) Social learning theory where learning is by imitation of others (Bandura, 1973) 4) Cognitive learning theories where learning is based on the thought processes of the individual (Bruner, 1978); Piaget, 1936). 5) Insight learning (Gestalt theory) where learning is through thinking and problem solving (Kohler, 1947)
According to these conceptual models, The behaviour affects the children’s characteristics in the classrooms in which they learn, in addition to their experiences within these contexts (Creemers & Reezigt, 1996). Consecutively, children’s learning environments produce proximal processes and interactions that drive learning as well as the behavioural characteristics of other children within them, (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998). absolutely the behavioural characteristics of their classmates may affect an individual
Learning is a multifaceted perception unique to each individual. In looking to address the intricacies of learning, there have been a multitude of learning theories established over the centuries. To this day new theories are developed and traditional theories continue to be developed and expanded upon. (Swinburne Online, 2016)
Cognitive and behavioral learning theories tend to dominate modern discussions of learning theories. Employed in both educational and clinical settings, both have important contributions to understanding how and why individuals learn. Is one approach statistically better than the other, or do they each have their own place where one approach may be more effective under specific circumstances? Each theory has supporters who claim the efficacy of their theory is superior. Comparison of the theories is necessary to determine if one is significantly better than the other, or even if one theory may be slightly more effective than the other. Determining if one competing theory
One of the simplest and most commonly-used methods of conceptualizing learning is that of reinforcement theory (Noe 2010: 142). Every time a parent promises a child a toy for being good during a grocery store trip or threatens a teen with being grounded for bad grades, he or she is using reinforcement theory. Reinforcement theory is based upon the assumption that people want to experience as much pleasure as possible and avoid pain. Thus, businesses offer workers bonuses for good work, and issue reprimands (such as docking pay or denying a promotion) for poor behavior.