Translation Vs. Localization : Is It A Synonym For Translation?

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This brings me to my real question: what is localization? Is it a synonym for translation? Is it something more? Or is it something else entirely?
A simple Google search of “translation vs. localization” reveals a variety of responses, but most of them focus on the distinction between literal and dynamic equivalence translations, broadly assigning “translation” to the former, and “localization” the latter. A statement by a translation company claims, “Translation is the word-for-word rendering of source text from one language […] into another... [and] is fairly literal—the source and target-language text should […] essentially be mirror-images of each other,” while “Localization involves translation plus adapting the target-language
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In this case, the message was altered, but it was not to present the same effective message to the target culture as it did the source culture, as in the case of dynamic equivalence. Instead, it was purposefully changed to create an entirely different perception for the video game console, one that Nintendo of America thought would result in more sales.
It’s clear that localization is not just a synonym for translation used in the technology industry. In fact, I’ve realized that the goal of translation and the goal of localization are actually very different.
The ultimate goal of translation is to convey an intelligible message to the target audience. This can include both the fundamental message present in the text, but also a more encompassing message about the source culture. Looking back at literature and the examples in class, translation was used to convey a variety of messages about Japan to the US and vice-versa. For example, the translations of Yasunari’s works conveyed the “traditional” view of Japan, painting Japan as a country driven by nature, and the people’s emotions as vague and melancholy. The translation of “Aghwee,” on the other hand, presented Japan as a modern, Westernized

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