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Use Of The Telephone For Diabetes Education Affects Glycemic Control ( Hba1c ) And Weight Management

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The Use of Telephone Education in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
Lajuana D. Campbell
University of Central Florida
NGR 6801 – Spring 2015

Abstract
In 2012 it was estimated that 1.5 million deaths worldwide were caused by diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus requires self-managing by the patients. However, many patients have difficulty managing to achieve appropriate glycemic control. With a significant issue being lack of knowledge and access to healthcare of those diagnosed with diabetes, other methods of providing education have been explored, such as telephonic outreach. This literature review analyzes how the use of the telephone for diabetes education affects glycemic control (HbA1C) and weight management.
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Keywords: diabetes, telephone, support, education, glycemic control, weight loss

Significance
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease due to the lack of insulin production by the pancreas or the inability of the body to use the insulin effectively (WHO, 2015). Diabetes kills more Americans each year than AIDS and breast cancer combined (ADA, March 2015). In 2012 it was estimated that 1.5 million deaths worldwide were caused by diabetes. In the United States, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than tripled from 1980 through 2011 (WHO, 2015). Nearly 30 million adults and children are diagnosed with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) in the United States and it has become the 7th leading cause of death for this country.
Complications of diabetes include, kidney disease, hypertension, gastroparesis, retinopathy, neuropathy, and stroke (ADA, 2015). In the United States, diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and accounts for 228,924 individuals either on dialysis or with a kidney transplant. The rate of hospitalization for heart attacks is 1.8 times higher and the rate of stroke is 1.5 times higher for individuals diagnosed with diabetes (ADA, March 2015). The effect of diabetes is not only damaging to those diagnosed, but is also financially damaging to the economy. The direct and indirect (disability, work loss, premature mortality) cost of diagnosed diabetes in the United States is 245 billion dollars. This breaks
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