The expectancy theory states that people assume that negative and positive consequences follow like behaviors, and that performance, which is the result of effort, is directly linked to the outcome produced. Within expectancy theory are three key concepts: valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. Valence in an individual’s preference for a certain reward. A good example of valence is rewarding an employee who enjoys reading with a gift card to a bookstore rather than a pay raise or additional vacation time. Expectation is the connection of effort with performance. It is similar to the concept of putting one’s nose to the grindstone. Instrumentality is the connection of performance with rewards. An example of instrumentality is that of a mouse navigating a maze to receive a reward of a piece of
Mitchell (1982, p.82) describes motivation as “the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviours”. Hence, in general, behaviour is determined by certain motives, thus, Vroom and Deci (1992, p.33) considered motivation “as the causes of our behaviour”. Moreover, according to Mullins (2013, p.245) motivation is concerned with question “why do people do what they do?”, because motivation is an inner driving force which leads to particular action to achieve some aim and fulfil some need. In other words, Chartered Management Institute (cited in Mullins, 2013, p.246) observes that, “the aim of management is to give people what they really want most from work”.
Instrumentality; this is the belief that if someone performs well, a valued outcome will arise. It means
The first theory is incentive theory which suggests people are motivated to do things because of external rewards after an action is preformed which is linked to
On the other hand, a process theory like Vroom’s Expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964) focuses on the outcome and not on needs unlike Herzberg. It gives an answer for why individuals select one behavioural option above others. The Expectancy Theory argues, "People make decisions among alternative plans of behaviour based on their perceptions [expectancies] of the degree to which a given behaviour will lead to desired outcomes" (Mathibe, I.R. 2008). Vroom theorized that the source of motivation in Expectancy Theory is a "multiplicative function of valence, instrumentality and expectancy." (Stecher and Rosse, 2007), where valence means "value" and refers to
Motivation is having a reason or reasons to act/behave in a particular way. It creates “drive” in people whether it is in pursuit of a goal, or the need to complete an activity. It produces enthusiasm and a willingness to achieve in both a work environment and in your personal life. Motivation can be increased and decreased in line with the incentives on offer.
Motivation is to achieve a desired outcome such as completing a task or project quickly and to a high standard for reward and recognition through enthusiasm. What motivates employees at work? According to Herzberg et al, 1957 - the happiness of staff at work depends on the existing working conditions, the status of the job and the pay and benefits package. While these so called hygiene factors keep workers satisfied initially, only if the work is challenging, efforts are rewarded and responsibility is given does it lead to long term motivation. For this to work, the company needs to create policies and practises that encourage motivation and performance.
The Expectancy Theory suggests that individuals choose a particular course of action after they have – often subconsciously – evaluated three critical components of the theory.
Motivation is a process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior induced by the expectation of satisfying individual needs. It is the major determinants of our behaviors. By understand the motives, you can influence staff’s behaviors. Especially with the shift towards a more socially and culturally responsive workforce, ability to motivate your staff is becoming one of the most important assets of an organization.
What is motivation? As manager’s, motivation is one of the most vital and crucial assets to possess in managing a business. This drive is a critical tool to use in the work place and determine the success or failure of an organization. Motivation is a driving force that initiates and directs behavior. In other words, motivation is an internal energy that drives an individual to do something in order to achieve a certain goal. Therefore, creating a motivating environment in the workplace will lead to happy employees. Creating a work environment like this, managers can expect low staff turnovers, improved productivity, happy customers, and better financial performance. Therefore, the input of motivation use towards employees determines the output efficiency of the company. However, everyone involved in an organization is motivated differently. Everybody has their own individual needs in regards to motivation. Depending on how motivated a person is, determines the effort that individual puts into the work and therefore, how productive they are.
Motivation refers to the psychological processes “that underline the direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior or thought (Fugate & Kinicki, p. 146).” Motivating your employees is very important and can be critical to accomplishing the mission or task at hand. “Direction pertains to what an individual is attending to at a given time, intensity represents the amount of effort being invested in the activity, and persistence represents for how long that activity is the focus of one’s attention (Fugate & Kinicki, p. 146).” Being able to instill motivation within the work place makes individual’s work that much harder to achieve the goal that the organization has set forth. According to Seppala, the best leaders are able to take a step back and maintain a human touch in the workplace by inspiring employees, being kind to them, and encouraging them to take care of themselves (Seppala, 2016). Although motivation comes in two forms, both extrinsically and intrinsically, the fact remains that motivation is the fuel that drives results and performances. On the opposite end of the spectrum, lack of motivation can cause a decrease in morale. People who are unmotivated to work can become complacent within the organization and just be content with having a steady job. In order to prevent this, it is with the utmost importance, that leaders and managers find a way to motivate their people. As a result, this would make job employees want to come to work, motivate
Motivation is: “the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995); an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994); and the will to achieve” (Bedeian, 1993). Due to the difference in the definitions for motivation, I will use the definition – Motivation is the inner drive that allows individuals to achieve company and personal goals.
One view held by cognitive theorist an individual’s motivation is based on value and expectation (Textbook 370). According to this theory, people are motivated to preform behaviour to the extent
This outcome may come in the form of a pay increase or a sense of accomplishment. Instrumentality is low when the outcome is the same for all possible level of performance. Valence is the value employees place on outcomes based on their needs, goals, values, and sources of motivation, and the strength of the employee’s preference for a particular outcome.
If I ask any person who is successful in whatever he or she is doing what motivates him/her, very likely the answer will be "goals". Goal setting is extremely important to motivation and success.