Many types of cells are able to use membrane-spanning transport proteins and a source of energy to drive the active transport of glucose across the cell membrane. Let's consider a specific protein that is able to transport (from outside the cell into the cytoplasm) one molecule of glucose for each molecule of ATP the protein hydrolyzes. The details of this process are not important for this problem except that you can treat it like equilibrium process. The overall reaction and the associated AG at 298 K for this process are given below. Glc(out) + ATP + H20 = Glc(in) + ADP +P at T = 298 K, AG = -31.3 kJ mol~1 Additional Information: • P. is "inorganic phosphate" (i.e. PO43- & related species). At equilibrium, [P] = 3 × 10-3 M. • The cell maintains a ratio of ATP to ADP of about 20 (i.e. [ATP]/[ADP] = 20). • The maximum ratio of [Glc(in)] to [Glc(out)] occurs when the system is at equilibrium.

Question
Many types of cells are able to use membrane-spanning transport proteins and a
source of energy to drive the active transport of glucose across the cell membrane. Let's
consider a specific protein that is able to transport (from outside the cell into the cytoplasm)
one molecule of glucose for each molecule of ATP the protein hydrolyzes.
The details of this process are not important for this problem except that you can treat
it like equilibrium process. The overall reaction and the associated AG at 298 K for this
process are given below.
Glc(out) + ATP + H20 = Glc(in) + ADP +P
at T = 298 K, AG = -31.3 kJ mol~1
Additional Information:
• P. is "inorganic phosphate" (i.e. PO43- & related species). At equilibrium, [P] = 3 × 10-3 M.
• The cell maintains a ratio of ATP to ADP of about 20 (i.e. [ATP]/[ADP] = 20).
• The maximum ratio of [Glc(in)] to [Glc(out)] occurs when the system is at equilibrium.
Expand
Transcribed Image Text

Many types of cells are able to use membrane-spanning transport proteins and a source of energy to drive the active transport of glucose across the cell membrane. Let's consider a specific protein that is able to transport (from outside the cell into the cytoplasm) one molecule of glucose for each molecule of ATP the protein hydrolyzes. The details of this process are not important for this problem except that you can treat it like equilibrium process. The overall reaction and the associated AG at 298 K for this process are given below. Glc(out) + ATP + H20 = Glc(in) + ADP +P at T = 298 K, AG = -31.3 kJ mol~1 Additional Information: • P. is "inorganic phosphate" (i.e. PO43- & related species). At equilibrium, [P] = 3 × 10-3 M. • The cell maintains a ratio of ATP to ADP of about 20 (i.e. [ATP]/[ADP] = 20). • The maximum ratio of [Glc(in)] to [Glc(out)] occurs when the system is at equilibrium.

Expert Answer

Want to see the step-by-step answer?

Check out a sample Q&A here.

Want to see this answer and more?

Experts are waiting 24/7 to provide step-by-step solutions in as fast as 30 minutes!*

*Response times may vary by subject and question complexity. Median response time is 34 minutes for paid subscribers and may be longer for promotional offers.
Tagged in
Science
Biochemistry

Biomolecules

Related Biochemistry Q&A

Find answers to questions asked by students like you.

Q: Which of the following is true about heterogeneous nuclear RNA? it is more common in prokaryotes th...

A: Heterogeneous nuclear RNA is a type of RNA which is produce just after the transcription process

Q: Assume a pH gradient of 4.0 units across a thylakoid membrane, with the lumen more acidic than the s...

A: The thylakoid membrane of chloroplast is the site where the light reaction of photosynthesis takes p...

Q: In contrast to phospholipids, the transport of fatty acids across membranesis much more rapid (less ...

A: The cell membrane is comprised of a phospholipid (Bilipid) layer, which acts as a selective membrane...

Q: Trypsin cleaves polypeptide chains at the carboxyl side of a lysine or arginine residue. Chymotrypsi...

A: Trypsin is a serine protease found in the digestive system of many vertebrates. It helps in breaks d...

Q: The equilibrium constant for the reaction Q → R is 25. Solve, (a) If 50 μM of Q is mixed with 50 μM ...

A: The constant of equilibrium, K, represents the relationship between products and reactants of the eq...

Q: What is the charge of this peptide at pH 7?

A: This peptide is composed of glutamic acid (N-terminal), valine, serine, lysine and cysteine (C-termi...

Q: Please answer

A: Polyketides(PKs) and non-ribosomal peptide hybrids(NRPS) are important class of natural products, an...

Q: Predict the effect of mutating Asp 102 of trypsin to Asn (a) on substratebinding and (b) on catalysi...

A: Serine and cysteine proteinases form two important enzymes classes. They use a catalytic triad to br...

Q: if you could answer these with an explanation I would appreciate it

A: 1. During exercise, a lot of energy is required to maintain muscle contraction. Therefore, our muscl...

Q: What is the metabolic advantage of a substrate cycle? What is its cost?

A: A substrate cycle is a set of metabolic reactions, arranged in a loop, which doesnot result in net c...

Q: Why can’t an enzyme have a kcat/KM value greater than 109 M−1 ∙ s−1?

A: Kcat/Km  is a measure of how many bound substrate molecules turnover or form product in 1 second. Th...

Q: What is HDL Cholesterol

A:     Cholesterol is an example of sterol compound. Steroids are complex derivatives of triterpenes. E...

Q: What is the appropriate dose (chlorine, ozone, ultraviolet rays) to sterilize water per 100 cubic me...

A: Hi! Thank you for the question! Since the appropriate dosage of ultraviolet rays is not known, the d...

Q: The precise mechanism of ammonia toxicity to the brain is not known. Speculate on a possible mechani...

A: Ammonium toxicity is known to cause the condition of hyperammonemia, which is considered a very dang...

Q: Explain the equation E+S---->ES----> E + P.

A: Given equation,  E+S---->ES----> E + P E = Enzyme S= Substrate P= Product Enzyme is required f...

Q: Write a balanced equation for the complete oxidation of each of the following, and calculate the res...

A: The respiratory quotient (RQ) is a dimensionless number used inn the calculations of basal metabolic...

Q: 1The sugar alcohol often used in “sugarless” gums and candies is L-sorbitol. Much of this alcohol is...

A: The sugars or carbohydrates have aldehydic or ketonic groups which can be reduced to give modified s...

Q: What does it mean to mask an interfering species?

A: There are various types of separation techniques used in analytical chemistry for separating a chemi...

Q: Explain how NADH carry electrons by explaining what a hydride is?

A: A hydride is traditionally the hydrogen anion, H-. The term is liberally interpreted. All materials ...

Q: Which one of the following reactions only occurs during gluconeogenesis (i.e., not during glycolysis...

A: Gluconeogenesis is the metabolic cycle by which living beings produce sugars (to be specific glucose...

Q: A water sample from which 10, 1, and 0.1 ml/100mL dilutions resulted in 5, 4 and 3 positive lactose-...

A: Most probable number (MPN) is a method for estimation of the concentration of viable micro-organisms...

Q: Explain why enzyme activity varies with temperature, as shown here.

A: Enzyme activity is a measure of number of moles of product formed per unit time.

Q: examples of diseases or circumstances that could cause patient results outside the expected range. T...

A: Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) is a type of compound discovered essentially in heart muscle cells. This ...

Q: what are the role of tetra amindo macrocyclic ligand in environmental toxicology

A: Tetra-amido macrocyclic ligands (TAMLs) belong to a class of macrocyclic ligands. This ligand, when ...

Q: What are tetra-amido macrocyclic ligands and their role in environmental Toxicology

A: TAMLs or tetra-amido macrocyclic ligands are used for the degradation of pesticides. 

Q: What is the role of doctors and nurses in the treatment of COVID-19

A: Covid19 or coronavirus disease is an infectious disease with symptoms like fever, dry cough, tiredne...

Q: 6. Treatment of cholesterol with mCPBA results in formation of a single epoxide A, with the stereoch...

A: mCPBA is a peroxycarboxylic acid. It is often preferred to other peroxy acids because of its relativ...

Q: Unlike carbohydrates and fatty acids, protein shuld be supplied in regular basis. Why there is a nee...

A: Carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). They are simply...

Q: It is mentioned that a high-sucrose diet can cause non-alcoholic FLD. Explain.

A: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the deposition of liver fat. Two types of NAFLD exist, non-alco...

Q: In a molecular disease of hemoglobin, Hemoglobin Rainier, Tyr 145β is replaced by Cys, which forms a...

A: A) OXYGEN AFFINITY In Hemoglobin Rainier, Tyr 145β is replaced by Cys, which forms a disulfide bond ...

Q: the reaction catalyzed by glyceradehyde 3-phosphate dehydrigenase is based on NAD+ and a active site...

A: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme of molecular weight 37 kDa. This enzyme helps ...

Q: If ACh channels are opened on a muscle fiber that is held at +55 mV, which ion moves predominantly? ...

A: In general, nerves and muscles generate and transfer electrical signals and these excited signals ar...

Q: How many high-energy phosphates are generated or consumed in converting (a) 1 mole of glucose to lac...

A: The phosphate-phosphate bonds formed when compounds such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosin...

Q: Does entropy increase or decrease in the following process?

A: Phosphoglycerate mutase catalyzes and converts 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate. This enzyme...

Q: if the reaction pH drops significantly (pH=2 for example), how would reaction catalyzed be serine pr...

A: Serine protease are the enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins in which serine serves as nucl...