10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404




10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

What type of solid will each of the following substances form?

a. CO2

b. SiO2

c. Si

d. CH4

e. Ru

f. I2

g. KBr

h. H2O

i. NaOH

j. u

k. CaCO3

l. PH3

Interpretation Introduction


           The type of solid formed by the given by compounds has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

  • Solids constitute the major part of the matter in the universe. Beneath the earth as well as above the sky in our Universe, and in our everyday life, solids can be found. Solids do have such a profound significance since the beginning of the Universe and human evolution.
  • A solid is anything that is firm and stable in shape. Physics and Chemistry do provide clear cut explanation for the structure of solids. The firm and dense nature of solids is due to the strong intermolecular forces between their components.
  • On the basis of the arrangement of the components in a solid, there are two distinct types of solids - crystalline solids and amorphous solids. These two types differ in the arrangement of their respective components and so in their properties.
  • Crystalline solids have their own sub-classification. The types of solids can be summarized as follows –


                                                              Figure 1

  • Crystalline solids have well-defined regular, compact, orderly arrangement of their components in a very long range order. They are termed as true solids.
  • Amorphous solids lack such well defined arrangement of its components thus disordered or random arrangement does exist in them. They are termed as pseudo solids orsuper cooled liquids.
  • Ionic solids, molecular solids, covalent solids and metallic solids are the types of crystalline solids. 
  • In ionic solids, ions of opposite charges are bind together by electrostatic force and are neatly stacked to form a regular and well-defined structure.
  • If molecules are arranged in such a fashion, then it is molecular solid whereas metal atoms are arranged in such a manner, it is metallic solid. Non-metal atoms held together by weak London dispersion forces form atomic solids.
  • In Covalent solids the components are atoms bonded by covalent bond repetitively and thus forms huge network form of solid. It is also known as atomic network solids. They are widely formed by group 14 elements and its compounds.
  • All these types of solids differ in their respective intramolecular as well as intermolecular forces.

(a) CO2

                 Understand the type of bonding in CO2 and the type of solid it forms.

CO2 is a non-polar covalent compound. The intermolecular force present in non-polar compounds is London dispersion forces. It forms molecular solid.

CO2 is a symmetric molecule.  Carbon and Oxygen are doubly bonded to each other. Though polarity arises in C-O bond, due to the presence of center of symmetry in the molecule, the dipole moment raised due to polarity gets cancelled.


                                       Figure 2

Thus, it is a non-polar covalent compound. Non-polar covalent compounds form molecular solids which have weak intermolecular forces.

(b)  SiO2

        Understand the type of bonding in SiO2 and the type of solid it forms.

SiO2 is a covalent compound and possess “network” like structure. It forms covalent network solid.

Unlike Carbon, Silicon cannot form “pi bond” with oxygen in SiO2 . The covalent bond between Si-O is stronger than that of C-O . Thus, it forms a strong 3D network solid and exist as macromolecule.

(c)  Si

      Understand the type of bonding in Si and the type of solid it forms.

      Si atoms form strong covalent bond with each other. It exists as network solid.

The Si-Si covalent bond is so strong that it is formed repetitively that innumerable Si atoms are connected by this bonding. Eventually a giant like structure is formed by Silicon atoms. Thus it exists as an atomic network solid.

(d)  CH4

      Understand the type of bonding in CH4 and the type of solid it forms.

Methane is the simplest form of hydrocarbons. We are familiar with the fact that hydrocarbons are pure non-polar covalent compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen. They form molecular solids.

C-H bond is covalent and non-polar due the very less difference of electronegativity between them. Hence, methane is a non-polar covalent compound and forms molecular solid.

(e)  Ru

              Understand the type of bond and solid that Ruthenium forms.

Ruthenium is a transition metal. The bonding between Ru atoms is metallic and so it forms metallic solid.

Being in a metallic state, Ruthenium atoms form metallic bonds between each      other. So, Ruthenium forms metallic solid.

(f)  I2

              Understand the type of bonding in I2 and the type of solid it forms.

Iodine is non-metal and it forms non-polar covalent bond with its atoms. Thus, it forms molecular solid.

Being in a non-metallic state, Iodine atoms form covalent bonds between each other. The bond is non-polar and there exists weak London dispersion forces between the molecules. Thus, Iodine forms molecular solid.

(g)  KBr

              Understand the type of bonding in KBr and the type of solid it forms

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Chapter 10 Solutions

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Ch-10 P-1ALQCh-10 P-2ALQCh-10 P-3ALQCh-10 P-4ALQCh-10 P-5ALQCh-10 P-6ALQCh-10 P-7ALQCh-10 P-8ALQCh-10 P-9ALQCh-10 P-10ALQCh-10 P-11ALQCh-10 P-12ALQCh-10 P-13ALQCh-10 P-15QCh-10 P-16QCh-10 P-17QCh-10 P-18QCh-10 P-19QCh-10 P-20QCh-10 P-21QCh-10 P-22QCh-10 P-23QCh-10 P-24QCh-10 P-25QCh-10 P-26QCh-10 P-27QCh-10 P-29QCh-10 P-30QCh-10 P-31QCh-10 P-32QCh-10 P-34QCh-10 P-35QCh-10 P-36QCh-10 P-37ECh-10 P-38ECh-10 P-39ECh-10 P-40ECh-10 P-41ECh-10 P-42ECh-10 P-43ECh-10 P-44ECh-10 P-45ECh-10 P-46ECh-10 P-47ECh-10 P-48ECh-10 P-49ECh-10 P-50ECh-10 P-51ECh-10 P-52ECh-10 P-53ECh-10 P-54ECh-10 P-55ECh-10 P-56ECh-10 P-57ECh-10 P-58ECh-10 P-59ECh-10 P-60ECh-10 P-61ECh-10 P-62ECh-10 P-63ECh-10 P-64ECh-10 P-65ECh-10 P-66ECh-10 P-67ECh-10 P-68ECh-10 P-69ECh-10 P-70ECh-10 P-71ECh-10 P-72ECh-10 P-73ECh-10 P-74ECh-10 P-75ECh-10 P-76ECh-10 P-77ECh-10 P-78ECh-10 P-79ECh-10 P-80ECh-10 P-81ECh-10 P-82ECh-10 P-83ECh-10 P-84ECh-10 P-85ECh-10 P-86ECh-10 P-87ECh-10 P-88ECh-10 P-89ECh-10 P-90ECh-10 P-91ECh-10 P-92ECh-10 P-93ECh-10 P-94ECh-10 P-95ECh-10 P-96ECh-10 P-97ECh-10 P-98ECh-10 P-99ECh-10 P-100ECh-10 P-101ECh-10 P-103ECh-10 P-104ECh-10 P-105ECh-10 P-106ECh-10 P-107ECh-10 P-108ECh-10 P-109ECh-10 P-110ECh-10 P-111AECh-10 P-112AECh-10 P-113AECh-10 P-114AECh-10 P-115AECh-10 P-116AECh-10 P-117AECh-10 P-118AECh-10 P-119AECh-10 P-120AECh-10 P-121AECh-10 P-122AECh-10 P-123AECh-10 P-124AECh-10 P-125AECh-10 P-126AECh-10 P-127AECh-10 P-128AECh-10 P-129AECh-10 P-131CWPCh-10 P-132CWPCh-10 P-133CWPCh-10 P-134CWPCh-10 P-135CWPCh-10 P-136CWPCh-10 P-137CWPCh-10 P-138CWPCh-10 P-139CWPCh-10 P-140CWPCh-10 P-141CPCh-10 P-142CPCh-10 P-143CPCh-10 P-144CPCh-10 P-145CPCh-10 P-146CPCh-10 P-147CPCh-10 P-148CPCh-10 P-149CPCh-10 P-150CPCh-10 P-151CPCh-10 P-152CPCh-10 P-153CPCh-10 P-154CPCh-10 P-155CPCh-10 P-156CPCh-10 P-157IPCh-10 P-158IPCh-10 P-159IPCh-10 P-160MP

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