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The biological effects of a particular source of radiation depend on several factors. List some of these factors. Even though 85 Kr and 90 Sr are both β -particle emitters, the dangers associated with the decay of 90 Sr are much greater than those linked to 85 Kr. Why? Although γ rays are far more penetrating than α particles, the latter are more likely to cause damage to an organism. Why? Which type of radiation is more effective at promoting the ionization of biomolecules?

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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 18, Problem 10RQ
Textbook Problem
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The biological effects of a particular source of radiation depend on several factors. List some of these factors. Even though 85Kr and 90Sr are both β-particle emitters, the dangers associated with the decay of 90Sr are much greater than those linked to 85Kr. Why? Although γ rays are far more penetrating than α particles, the latter are more likely to cause damage to an organism. Why? Which type of radiation is more effective at promoting the ionization of biomolecules?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The factors on which biological effect of a particular source of radiation depends are to be listed. The reason for greater danger associated with 90Sr in comparison to 85Kr and more damage to an organism by alpha particles than gamma particles is to be stated. The type of radiation more effective at promoting the ionization of biomolecules is to be stated.

Concept introduction: The Sr do not possess radioactive properties but its isotope 90Sr have high radioactive properties and it undergo beta decay. It causes damage to humans as well as environment. Radon- 222 decays by alpha particle production and also possesses health risks.

To determine: The factors on which biological effect of a particular source of radiation depends, reason for greater danger associated with 90Sr in comparison to 85Kr and more damage to an organism by alpha particles than gamma particles and the type of radiation more effective at promoting the ionization of biomolecules.

Explanation of Solution

Explanation

The factors on which the biological effects of a particular source of radiation depend are listed below.

The biological effects of a particular source of radiation depend on several factors. They are:

  1. 1. The energy of radiation: higher the energy content of radiation, more damage it will cause.
  2. 2. The penetration ability of the radiation: different particles and rays generated in radioactive process have different penetrating ability.
  3. 3. The ionizing ability of the radiation: Various radiations have different ionizing abilities.
  4. 4. The chemical properties of radiation source: there is difference in behavior of the particles and rays produced by radioactive decay due to different chemical properties.

Explanation

Due to chemical inertness, danger associated with 85Kr is less than 90Sr .

Both strontium- 90 and krypton- 85 is harmful but the radioactive nuclide of Sr possess greater health hazard

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Chapter 18 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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Ch. 18 - When nuclei undergo nuclear transformations, rays...Ch. 18 - There is a trend in the United States toward using...Ch. 18 - Which type of radioactive decay has the net effect...Ch. 18 - Consider the following graph of binding energy per...Ch. 18 - What are transuranium elements and how are they...Ch. 18 - Scientists have estimated that the earths crust...Ch. 18 - Why are the observed energy changes for nuclear...Ch. 18 - Natural uranium is mostly nonfissionable 238U; it...Ch. 18 - Much of the research on controlled fusion focuses...Ch. 18 - A recent study concluded that any amount of...Ch. 18 - Write an equation describing the radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - In each of the following radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - Supply the missing particle, and state the type of...Ch. 18 - Write balanced equations for each of the processes...Ch. 18 - Write an equation describing Ute radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - In each of the following radioactive decay...Ch. 18 - Uranium-235 undergoes a series of -particle and,...Ch. 18 - The radioactive isotope 247Bk decays by a series...Ch. 18 - One type of commercial smoke detector contains a...Ch. 18 - Thorium-232 is known to undergo a progressive...Ch. 18 - There are four stable isotopes of iron with mass...Ch. 18 - The only stable isotope of fluorine is...Ch. 18 - In 1994 it was proposed (and eventually accepted)...Ch. 18 - Many elements have been synthesized by bombarding...Ch. 18 - The rate constant for a certain radioactive...Ch. 18 - Americium-241 is widely used in smoke detectors....Ch. 18 - Krypton consists of several radioactive isotopes,...Ch. 18 - Radioactive copper-64 decays with a half-life of...Ch. 18 - A chemist wishing to do an experiment requiring...Ch. 18 - The curie (Ci) is a commonly used unit for...Ch. 18 - The first atomic explosion was detonated in the...Ch. 18 - Iodine-131 is used in the diagnosis and treatment...Ch. 18 - Technetium-99 has been used as a radiographic...Ch. 18 - Phosphorus-32 is a commonly used radioactive...Ch. 18 - The bromine-82 nucleus has a half-life of 1.0 103...Ch. 18 - Fresh rainwater or surface water contains enough...Ch. 18 - A living plant contains approximately the same...Ch. 18 - Assume a constant 14C/12C ratio of 13.6 counts per...Ch. 18 - A rock contains 0.688 mg 206Pb for every 1.000 mg...Ch. 18 - The mass ratios of 40Ar to 40K also can be used to...Ch. 18 - The sun radiates 3.9 1023 J of energy into space...Ch. 18 - The earth receives 1.8 1014 kJ/s of solar energy....Ch. 18 - Many transuranium elements, such as plutonium-232,...Ch. 18 - The most stable nucleus in terms of binding energy...Ch. 18 - Calculate the binding energy in J/nucleon for...Ch. 18 - Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for H12...Ch. 18 - The mass defect for a lithium-6 nucleus is 0.03434...Ch. 18 - The binding energy per nucleon for magnesium-27 is...Ch. 18 - Calculate the amount of energy released per gram...Ch. 18 - The easiest fusion reaction to initiate is...Ch. 18 - The typical response of a Geiger-Mller tube is...Ch. 18 - When using a Geiger-Mller counter to measure...Ch. 18 - Consider the following reaction to produce methyl...Ch. 18 - A chemist studied the reaction mechanism for the...Ch. 18 - Uranium-235 undergoes many different fission...Ch. 18 - Breeder reactors are used to convert the...Ch. 18 - Which do you think would be the greater health...Ch. 18 - Consider the following information: i. The layer...Ch. 18 - Predict whether each of the following nuclides is...Ch. 18 - Each of the following isotopes has been used...Ch. 18 - The mass percent of carbon in a typical human is...Ch. 18 - At a flea market, youve found a very interesting...Ch. 18 - Define third-life in a similar way to half-life,...Ch. 18 - A proposed system for storing nuclear wastes...Ch. 18 - During World War II, tritium (3H) was a component...Ch. 18 - A positron and an electron can annihilate each...Ch. 18 - A small atomic bomb releases energy equivalent to...Ch. 18 - During the research that led to production of the...Ch. 18 - Using the kinetic molecular theory (see Section...Ch. 18 - Consider the following reaction, which can take...Ch. 18 - Photosynthesis in plants can be represented by the...Ch. 18 - Strontium-90 and radon-222 both pose serious...Ch. 18 - Complete the following table with the nuclear...Ch. 18 - A certain radioactive nuclide has a half-life of...Ch. 18 - Iodine-131 has a half-life of 8.0 days. 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