Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

A segment of the brain stem that coordinates spinal reflexes with higher brain centers and regulates breathing and wakefulness is the:

a. reticular formation.

b. white matter of the pons.

c. white matter of the medulla.

d. hypothalamus.

e. cerebellum.

Summary Introduction


The posterior part of the brain that continues with the spinal cord is known as the brain stem. The brain stem is composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata of the hindbrain. The main motor and sensory nerve of the face and neck are supplied by the brain stem. Brain stem regulates cardiac and respiratory function, sleep cycle, etc.


Justification of correct answer:

Option (a) is “reticular formation.” The complex network connection of interconnected neurons between the anterior end of the thalamus and the posterior end of the spinal cord is called reticular formation. Reticular formation is composed of two parts, namely, the ascending reticular formation and descending reticular formation. Ascending reticular formation controls sleep–wake cycle, breathing, and various levels of alertness and consciousness. Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.

Explanations for the incorrect answers:

Option (b) is “the white matter of the Pons.” Pons is also known as pons varolii. It is located inferior to the midbrain and superior to the medulla oblongata. It contains grey matter in the core area and white matter at the outer side. Pons is responsible for controlling hearing, taste, facial sensation, and chewing...

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