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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Which of the two autonomic nervous system divisions predominates in the following scenarios? (a) You are hiking on a trail and suddenly a bear appears in your path. (b) It is a hot, sunny day. You find a shady tree and sit down. Leaning against its trunk, you feel your eyes becoming heavy.

Summary Introduction

To review:

The division of autonomic nervous system predominates in two different situations: (a) An individual is hiking on a trail and suddenly a bear appears in your path and (b) It is a hot and sunny day, finding a tree you sit under.

Introduction:

The ANS (autonomic nervous system) is the part of the human’s nervous system that play a critical role in the control of the involuntary actions of the body. Nerves, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, endocrine glands, and some exocrine glands constitute the autonomic nervous system. It further, has two divisions, namely, parasympathetic and sympathetic, which have opposite actions controlling the involuntary actions of the body in opposite situation.

Explanation

Sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system working in opposite situation control the involuntary actions of body. The two opposite situations are described below:

Hiking on a trail, suddenly a bear appears in the path: This situation shows an emergency situation, when the body needs high amount of energy. The sympathetic nervous system predominates in this situation and releases a neurotransmitter norepinephrine from the neurons, which binds to the receptors of the effector cells and directs the effector cells to increase the involuntary activities, such as increasing the breathing rate.

Sitting down; finding a tree in a hot and sunny day; eyes get heavier while leaning against its trunk: This situation shows resting situation when the body needs low amount of energy...

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