Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

The lithosphere includes all:


ice caps.

rocks, soils, and sediments.

gases and airborne particles.

places where organisms live.

Summary Introduction


Earth comprises three portions, namely lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. A major portion of the Earth is submerged in water, which is depicted as the hydrosphere. The solid portion of the Earth is referred to as the lithosphere.


Correct answer:

The soil, rocks, and sediments on the Earth together form the lithosphere.


Justification/Explanation for the correct answer:

Option (c) is soil, sediments, and rocks. These are solid materials that form the land and are, thus, called the lithosphere. It is the most habitable part on the Earth. Hence, option (c) is correct.

Explanation for the incorrect answers:

Option (a) is oceans. The oceans and other water bodies make three-fourth part of the Earth. The liquid regions of the Earth, which include oceans as well, form the hydrosphere. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (b) is ice caps. Ice caps are found in the poles, which may be a part of the lithosphere, but can quickly be liquefied when the temperature increases. Therefore, it is not a part of the lithosphere. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (d) is gases and air-borne particles. Gases and other particles that hover around in the air are a part of the atmosphere. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (e) is the places where organisms live. All threespherespresent on the Earth and the interaction of the biotic component with these spheres, together constitute the biosphere. So, the places where organisms live can include parts of all the three spheres. So, it is an incorrect option.

Hence, options (a), (b), (d), and (e) are incorrect.


Thus, the land portion of the Earth that is majorly marked by rocks, soil, and sediments denotes the lithosphere.

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