BuyFind

Oceanography: An Invitation To Mar...

9th Edition
Garrison + 1 other
Publisher: Brooks Cole
ISBN: 9781305254282
BuyFind

Oceanography: An Invitation To Mar...

9th Edition
Garrison + 1 other
Publisher: Brooks Cole
ISBN: 9781305254282

Solutions

Chapter 6, Problem 1TC
Textbook Problem

How can sound be used to measure the temperature of an ocean?

Expert Solution
To determine

The definition of latent heat of vaporization and fusion. Also define the one that requires more heat to transform physical state of water and give reason.

Answer to Problem 1TC

Latent heat of vaporization is the amount of heat energy necessary to break the strong hydrogen bonds, and latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy that must be removed to form ice. Latent heat of vaporization requires more heat to transform physical state of water since it involves breaking of hydrogen bonds, while the other involves bending.

Explanation of Solution

The diffusion of individual molecules of water occurs into the air during the vaporization or evaporation of water. Each molecule of water is connected to each other with the bonds of hydrogen. Hence, to break those bonds and to allow the molecules to fly away from the surface, heat energy is needed. The amount of heat energy that is required to break the strong bonds of hydrogen is termed as the latent heat of vaporization.

Latent heat of fusion can be defined as the volume of heat energy that must be removed to form the ice. The removal of one calorie of heat from freezing water at 0°C or 32°F does not change its temperature. Instead about 80 calories of heat energy must be removed per gram of pure water at 0°C or 32°F to form ice. This heat is denoted as the latent heat of fusion.

The breaking up of hydrogen bonds occurs in latent heat of vaporization, while bending happens in ice formation. Hence, more energy is required to break than to bend. It indicates that the latent heat of vaporization is greater than the latent heat of fusion.

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Chapter 6 Solutions

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin
Ch. 6.4 - How is waters density affected by freezing? Why...Ch. 6.4 - What is the difference between sensible and...Ch. 6.4 - Whats the latent heat of fusion of water? The...Ch. 6.4 - How do the properties of seawater differ from...Ch. 6.5 - Look up the places in the continental United...Ch. 6.5 - Why do you think salinity is so high in the...Ch. 6.5 - Whats thermal inertia?Ch. 6.5 - Why is the fact that ice floats important to...Ch. 6.5 - How is heat transported from tropical regions to...Ch. 6.5 - How has the oceans density structure thought to...Ch. 6.6 - Knowing what you do about the factors controlling...Ch. 6.6 - How is the ocean stratified by density? What names...Ch. 6.6 - What, generally, are the water characteristics of...Ch. 6.6 - What, generally, are the water characteristics of...Ch. 6.6 - How is the pycnocline related to the thermocline...Ch. 6.6 - How is a water mass defined?Ch. 6.6 - How does the oceans density stratification limit...Ch. 6.7 - What is refraction?Ch. 6.7 - What is refractive index?Ch. 6.8 - Imagine light striking the edge of a prism. Draw...Ch. 6.8 - What factors influence the intensity and color of...Ch. 6.8 - Intensities being equal, which color of light...Ch. 6.8 - What happens to the energy of light when light is...Ch. 6.8 - What factors affect the depth of the photic zone?...Ch. 6.9 - Would the SOFAR principle operate if the speed of...Ch. 6.9 - How much faster is the speed of sound in water...Ch. 6.9 - Is the speed of sound the same at all ocean...Ch. 6.9 - Whats a SOFAR layer? A shadow zone?Ch. 6.9 - How does sonar work? What kinds of sonar systems...Ch. 6.9 - How can sound be used to measure the temperature...Ch. 6 - How can sound be used to measure the temperature...Ch. 6 - How does waters high latent heat influence the...Ch. 6 - How does the seasonal freezing and thawing of the...Ch. 6 - How does refraction permit sound to be transmitted...Ch. 6 - What factors influence the density of seawater?

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