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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 8, Problem 2E
Textbook Problem
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For each of the following scientists, explain their discoveries related to radioactivity and the significance of those discoveries.

Becquerel

Marie and Pierre Curie

Rutherford

Fermi

Hahn, Meitner, and Strassmann

Oppenheimer

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The discoveries related to radioactivity and the significance of the discoveries made by each of the given scientists are to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Radioactivity is the process of emission of tiny, energetic and invisible particles by the unstable nuclei of a radioactive atom.

Explanation of Solution

a) Bequerel

Becquerel was focused on studying the X-rays. He placed an experiment material, a crystal made up of uranium, on the top of a photographic plate and stored it in a dark room. A bright exposure spot was observed on the photographic plate. It was realized that the crystal continuously emitted radiation that was responsible for the exposure on the photographic plate.

Uranium in the crystal was concluded to be the source of emission, and thus the emission was termed as uranic rays.

b) Marie and Pierre Curie

Marie Curie pursued her doctoral research work to study the uranic rays. With the help of her husband Pierre Curie, she discovered that apart from uranium, two other elements also emitted the radiations which exposed to the photographic plate. The elements were named as polonium and radium. Since the elements other than uranium could also emit radiation, she changed the name of uranic rays and termed them as radioactivity.

c) Rutherford

Rutherford characterized the components of radioactivity and discovered alpha, beta and gamma rays. His most important contribution was the discovery of the atomic nucleus. Rutherford focused his research on the nature and the properties of the alpha rays...

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Chapter 8 Solutions

Chemistry In Focus
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Ch. 8 - Which problem is not associated with nuclear power...Ch. 8 - Why do fusion and fission both give off energy? a....Ch. 8 - On a molecular level, explain how radioactivity...Ch. 8 - For each of the following scientists, explain...Ch. 8 - Explain the differences among alpha, beta, and...Ch. 8 - Explain what is meant by half-life. What is its...Ch. 8 - Where is radon found, and why is it a potential...Ch. 8 - Describe nuclear fission, and write a nuclear...Ch. 8 - Who persuaded Roosevelt to put forth the resources...Ch. 8 - What is a critical mass, and how does it relate to...Ch. 8 - Explain the importance of each of the following...Ch. 8 - Describe experiments termed tickling the dragon....Ch. 8 - What is the difference between the fission...Ch. 8 - Describe the two designs, Fat Man and Little Boy,...Ch. 8 - What drove the scientists involved in the...Ch. 8 - Sketch a nuclear reactor, and explain how fission...Ch. 8 - Define mass defect and nuclear binding energy.Ch. 8 - Where does the energy associated with nuclear...Ch. 8 - What is the China syndrome?Ch. 8 - What are the two main problems associated with...Ch. 8 - What is being done to deal with nuclear waste?Ch. 8 - Describe the accidents at Three Mile Island,...Ch. 8 - What is fusion? Write a nuclear equation to...Ch. 8 - What are the technical difficulties associated...Ch. 8 - Explain the meaning of Q for fusion. What values...Ch. 8 - Explain the difference between exposure to...Ch. 8 - How does radiation affect humans at low exposures...Ch. 8 - Can radiation induce genetic changes in humans or...Ch. 8 - Explain how C-14 dating and U-238 dating work.Ch. 8 - According to U-238 dating techniques, what is the...Ch. 8 - Why can radiation, which is known to induce...Ch. 8 - How is radiation used to obtain images of internal...Ch. 8 - Writing Nuclear Equations Write nuclear equations...Ch. 8 - Write nuclear equations to represent each process:...Ch. 8 - Fill in the blank for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Fill in the blank for each of the following...Ch. 8 - Write a set of nuclear equations to represent the...Ch. 8 - Write a set of nuclear equations to represent the...Ch. 8 - Francium-223 decays to polonium-215 via three...Ch. 8 - Bismuth-215 decays to bismuth-211 via three decay...Ch. 8 - Half-Life I-131 has a half-life of 8.04 days. If a...Ch. 8 - Tc-99 is often used in medicine and has a half-...Ch. 8 - If the decay of each Tc-99 atom in problem 40...Ch. 8 - Nuclear Fission and Fusion Write a nuclear...Ch. 8 - Uranium-235 undergoes neutron-induced fission to...Ch. 8 - Write a nuclear equation to represent the fusion...Ch. 8 - The fusion of H-3 with H-l forms H-4. Write a...Ch. 8 - Radiation Exposure If a man is exposed to...Ch. 8 - If a woman is exposed to 0.57mSv/yr of radiation...Ch. 8 - Carbon and Uranium Dating The carbon in a fossil...Ch. 8 - The carbon in a human skull found in South America...Ch. 8 - The C-14 in an ancient scroll is 50% of that found...Ch. 8 - The C-14 in the skeleton of a wooly mammoth is...Ch. 8 - The percentages of uranium and lead in a meteorite...Ch. 8 - A rock that was originally all uranium contains...Ch. 8 - Nuclear Medicine A patient is given 0.080 mg of...Ch. 8 - A radioactive medical sample contains 2.88...Ch. 8 - Even though his discovery was fortuitous,...Ch. 8 - Several medical applications require the ingestion...Ch. 8 - Several radioactive isotopes are present in a...Ch. 8 - Could terrorists build a nuclear bomb from uranium...Ch. 8 - In Chapter 1, we learned that Lavoisier formulated...Ch. 8 - Why do nations stockpile nuclear weapons instead...Ch. 8 - Should we have dropped the bomb on unpopulated...Ch. 8 - It is clearly unethical to study the effects of...Ch. 8 - Is it ethical to intentionally expose animals to...Ch. 8 - The figure below represents the decay of N-16 by...Ch. 8 - The figure below represents the decay of Na-20 by...

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