9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally occurring isotopes are stable. (b) More artificial isotopes have been created in the laboratory than there are naturally occurring stable isotopes. (c) All artificial isotopes created in the laboratory are radioactive. (d) The terms "beta particle," "beta emission," and "beta ray" all refer to the same type of radiation. (e) When balancing a nuclear equation, the sum of the mass numbers and the sum of the atomic numbers on each side of the equation must be the same. (f) The symbol of a beta particle is (g) When a nucleus emits a beta particle, the new nucleus has the same mass number but an atomic number one unit higher. (h) When iron-59 emits a beta particle, it is converted to cobalt-59 (i) When a nucleus emits a beta particle, it first captures an electron from outside the nucleus and then emits it. (j) For the purposes of determining atomic numbers in a nuclear equation, an electron is assumed to have a mass number of zero and an atomic number of-1. (k) The symbol for an alpha particle is (l) When a nucleus emits an alpha particle, the new nucleus has an atomic number two units higher and a mass number four units higher. (m) When uranium-238 undergoes alpha emission, the new nucleus is thorium-234 (n) The symbol of a positron is (o) A positron is sometimes referred to as a positive electron. (p) When a nucleus emits a positron, the new nucleus has the same mass number but an atomic number one unit lower. (q) When carbon-11 emits a positron, the new nucleus formed is boron-11 (r) Alpha emission and positron emission both result in the formation of a new nucleus with a lower atomic number. (s) The symbol for gamma radiation is (t) When a nucleus emits gamma radiation, the new nucleus formed has the same mass number and the same atomic number. (u) When a nucleus captures an extranuclear electron, the new nucleus formed has the same atomic number but a mass number one unit lower. (v) When gallium-67 undergoes electron capture, the new nucleus formed is germanium-67

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Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759
BuyFind

Introduction to General, Organic a...

11th Edition
Frederick A. Bettelheim + 4 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781285869759

Solutions

Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P
Textbook Problem

9-18 Answer true or false.

(a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally occurring isotopes are stable.

(b) More artificial isotopes have been created in the laboratory than there are naturally occurring stable isotopes.

(c) All artificial isotopes created in the laboratory are radioactive.

(d) The terms "beta particle," "beta emission," and "beta ray" all refer to the same type of radiation.

(e) When balancing a nuclear equation, the sum of the mass numbers and the sum of the atomic numbers on each side of the equation must be the same.

(f) The symbol of a beta particle is Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  1

(g) When a nucleus emits a beta particle, the new nucleus has the same mass number but an atomic number one unit higher.

(h) When iron-59 Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  2emits a beta particle, it is converted to cobalt-59 Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  3

(i) When a nucleus emits a beta particle, it first captures an electron from outside the nucleus and then emits it.

(j) For the purposes of determining atomic numbers in a nuclear equation, an electron is assumed to have a mass number of zero and an atomic number of-1.

(k) The symbol for an alpha particle is Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  4

(l) When a nucleus emits an alpha particle, the new nucleus has an atomic number two units higher and a mass number four units higher.

(m) When uranium-238 Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  5undergoes alpha emission, the new nucleus is thorium-234 Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  6

(n) The symbol of a positron is Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  7

(o) A positron is sometimes referred to as a positive electron.

(p) When a nucleus emits a positron, the new nucleus has the same mass number but an atomic number one unit lower.

(q) When carbon-11 Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  8emits a positron, the new nucleus formed is boron-11 Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  9

(r) Alpha emission and positron emission both result in the formation of a new nucleus with a lower atomic number.

(s) The symbol for gamma radiation is Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  10

(t) When a nucleus emits gamma radiation, the new nucleus formed has the same mass number and the same atomic number.

(u) When a nucleus captures an extranuclear electron, the new nucleus formed has the same atomic number but a mass number one unit lower.

(v) When gallium-67 Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  11undergoes electron capture, the new nucleus formed is germanium-67 Chapter 9, Problem 9.18P, 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority (greater than 50%) of the more than 300 naturally , example  12

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Chapter 9 Solutions

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
Ch. 9 - 9-11 In each case, given the frequency, give the...Ch. 9 - 9-12 Red light has a wavelength of 650 nm. What is...Ch. 9 - 9-13 Which has the longest wavelength: (a)...Ch. 9 - 9-14 Write the symbol for a nucleus with the...Ch. 9 - 9-15 In each pair, tell which isotope is more...Ch. 9 - 9-16 Which isotope of boron is the most stable:...Ch. 9 - 9-17 Which isotope of oxygen is the most stable:...Ch. 9 - 9-18 Answer true or false. (a) The majority...Ch. 9 - 9-19 Samarium-151 is a beta emitter. Write an...Ch. 9 - 9-20 The following nuclei turn into new nuclei by...Ch. 9 - 9-21 Chromium-51 is used in diagnosing the...Ch. 9 - 9-22 The following nuclei decay by emitting alpha...Ch. 9 - 9-23 Curium-248 was bombarded, yielding...Ch. 9 - 9-24 Phosphorus-29 is a positron emitter. Write an...Ch. 9 - 9-25 For each of the following, write a balanced...Ch. 9 - 9-26 In the first three steps in the decay of...Ch. 9 - 9-27 What kind of emission does not result in...Ch. 9 - 9-28 Complete the following nuclear reactions. (a)...Ch. 9 - 9-29 Americium-240 is made by bombarding...Ch. 9 - 9-30 Answer true or false. (a) Half-life is the...Ch. 9 - 9-31 Iodine-125 emits gamma rays and has a...Ch. 9 - 9-32 Polonium-218, a decay product of radon-222...Ch. 9 - 9-33 A rock containing 1 mg of plutonium-239 per...Ch. 9 - 9-34 The element radium is extremely radioactive....Ch. 9 - 9-35 In what ways can we increase the rate of...Ch. 9 - 9-36 Suppose 50.0 mg of potassium-45, a beta...Ch. 9 - 9-37 A patient receives 200 mCi of iodine-131,...Ch. 9 - 9-38 Answer true or false. (a) Ionizing radiation...Ch. 9 - 9-39 If you work in a lab containing radioisotopes...Ch. 9 - 9-40 What do Geiger-Müller counters measure: (a)...Ch. 9 - 9-41 It is known that radioactivity is being...Ch. 9 - 9-42 Briefly contrast the three different units...Ch. 9 - 9-43 Does a curie (Ci) measure radiation intensity...Ch. 9 - 9-44 What property is measured with each of the...Ch. 9 - 9-45 A radioactive isotope with an activity...Ch. 9 - 9-46 Why does exposure of a hand to alpha rays not...Ch. 9 - 9-47 A certain radioisotope has an intensity of...Ch. 9 - 9-48 Assuming the same amount of absorbed...Ch. 9 - 9-49 In an accident involving radioactive...Ch. 9 - 9-50 Answer true or false. (a) Of the...Ch. 9 - 9-51 In 1986, the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl had...Ch. 9 - 9-52 Cobalt-60, with a half-life of 5.26 years, is...Ch. 9 - 9-53 Match the radioactive isotope with its proper...Ch. 9 - 9-54 Answer true or false. (a) In nuclear fusion,...Ch. 9 - 9-55 What are the products of the fusion of...Ch. 9 - 9-56 Assuming that one proton and two neutrons...Ch. 9 - 9-57 Element 109 was first prepared in 1982. A...Ch. 9 - 9-58 A new element was formed when lead-208 was...Ch. 9 - 9-59 Boron-10 is used in control rods for nuclear...Ch. 9 - 9-60 The most abundant isotope of uranium, does...Ch. 9 - 9-61 (Chemical Connections 9A) Why is it accurate...Ch. 9 - 9-62 (Chemical Connections 9A) In a recent...Ch. 9 - 9-63 (Chemical Connections 9A) Carbon-14 dating of...Ch. 9 - 9-64 (Chemical Connections 9A) The half-life of...Ch. 9 - 9-65 (Chemical Connections 9B) How does radon-222...Ch. 9 - 9-66 (Chemical Connections 9C) Why is high-energy...Ch. 9 - 9-67 (Chemical Connections 9D) How is the presence...Ch. 9 - 9-68 (Chemical Connections 9E) In a nuclear...Ch. 9 - 9-69 Phosphorus-32 is used in the medical imaging...Ch. 9 - 9-70 During the bombardment of argon-40 with...Ch. 9 - 9-71 Neon-19 and sodium-20 are positron emitters....Ch. 9 - 9-72 The half-life of nitrogen-16 is 7 seconds....Ch. 9 - 9-73 Do the curie and the becquerel measure the...Ch. 9 - 9-74 Selenium-75 has a half-life of 120.4 days, so...Ch. 9 - 9-75 Use Table 9-4 to determine the percentage of...Ch. 9 - is an alpha emitter. In its decay process, it...Ch. 9 - 9-77 Which radiation will cause more ionization,...Ch. 9 - 9-78 You have an old wristwatch that still has...Ch. 9 - 9-79 Americium-241, which is used in some smoke...Ch. 9 - 9-80 On rare occasions, a nucleus will capture a...Ch. 9 - 9-81 A patient is reported to have been irradiated...Ch. 9 - 9-82 What is the ground state of a nucleus?Ch. 9 - 9-83 Explain the following: (a) It is impossible...Ch. 9 - 9-84 Yttrium-90, which emits beta particles, is...Ch. 9 - 9-85 The half-lives of some oxygen isotopes are as...Ch. 9 - 9-86 is effective in prostate cancer therapy when...Ch. 9 - 9-87 When is bombarded with a new element and six...Ch. 9 - 9-88 Americium-241, the isotope used in smoke...Ch. 9 - 9-89 Boron-10, an effective absorber of neutrons,...Ch. 9 - 9-90 Tritium, is a beta emitter widely used as a...Ch. 9 - 9-91 Radon-222 decays to a stable nucleus by a...Ch. 9 - 9-92 Neptunium-237 decays by a series of steps to...Ch. 9 - 9-93 Thorium-232 decays by a 10-step process,...

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