What is  a Query?

A query is a type of computer programming language that is used to retrieve data from a database. Databases are useful in a variety of ways. They enable the retrieval of records or parts of records, as well as the performance of various calculations prior to displaying the results. A search query is one type of query that many people perform several times per day. A search query is executed every time you use a search engine to find something. When you press the Enter key, the keywords are sent to the search engine, where they are processed by an algorithm that retrieves related results from the search index. Your query's results are displayed on a search engine results page, or SER.

The query language refers to the interface through which such manipulations are specified.

A query is a request for data or information from a database table or table set. This data can be generated as SQL results or as pictorials, graphs, or complex results, such as trend analyses from data-mining tools.

The structured query approach is effective with relational databases. It has a formal, powerful syntax that is actually a programming language, and it can support logical operators. The Structured Query Language is one implementation of this method (SQL). Microsoft Structured Query Language (SQL) is the ideal query language. Other expansions of the language under the SQL query umbrella include:

SQL Commands

There are some SQL commands, and we can categorise these commands based on our work into three categories

DDL (Data Definition Language): DDL is divided into three sections: create, alter, and drop. When creating a new object in the database, the Create function is used. Alter is used to modify database objects such as tables. Drop is an object deletion method.

DML (Data Manipulation Language): Select, insert, update, and delete are the four sections of DML. Select is used to retrieve one or more rows of data from a table. Insert is a command that is used to create a new record. The update is used to make changes to the record. Delete is used to delete a record.

DCL (Data Control Language): DCL is divided into two parts: grant and revoke. Grant is in charge of granting permission to users. Revoke, on the other hand, is in charge of removing the permission.

Database Query

A query is a method of obtaining information from a database. A database query can be categorized as either a select query or an action query. A select query retrieves data, whereas an action query requests additional actions be performed on the data, such as deletion, insertion, and updating. A complex database contains multiple tables storing countless amounts of data. A query lets you filter it into a single table, so you can analyze it much more easily. A manager, for example, can run a query to find employees who were hired 5 months ago. The findings could serve as the foundation for developing performance evaluations.

Methods for Creating Queries

Choosing Parameters-Selecting Parameters from a Menu-In this method, the database system displays a list of parameters from which you can select. Because there are menus to guide you, this is the simplest way to create a query, but it is also the least flexible.

Query by Example (QBE)- The system displays a blank record and allows you to identify the fields and values that define the query using this method.

This is a query creation method that allows the user to look for documents based on an example in the form of a selected text string, a document name, or even a list of documents. Because the QBE system creates the query, QBE is simpler to understand than formal query languages while still allowing for powerful searches.


GraphQL is an API query language as well as a runtime for answering those queries using your existing data. GraphQL provides a comprehensive and understandable description of the data in your API, allowing clients to request only what they require, making it easier to evolve APIs over time, and enabling powerful developer tools.

Method of Creating a Query, using Wizard

The following steps must be taken in order to construct a query using the Wizard.

  • Choose Queries from the Objects list on the LHS (Left Hand Side) of the Database window.
  • On the RHS, double-click Create Query Using Wizard (Right Hand Side).

Immediately, a window titled 'Simple Query Wizard' appears, prompting the user     to choose a table field or an existing query to include in the query that is being created. Many of these fields can be chosen based on the query's information needs.

  • The tables (or queries) that are selected represent the data source for the query that is being created. The fields that are selected indicate the data items that will be displayed by the query. To select fields, use the arrow buttons or double click on the list of fields on the left side of this window.
  • After you've selected the fields you want, click Next. If a number or currency field is included in the chosen fields, the designer is prompted to select an option button to specify whether the query to be created is a sum.
  • If the detail option has been chosen, the query execution results in the display of records from the data source.
  • If the summary option is chosen, the user is prompted to enter the type of summarization required in the summarization field: sum, average, minimum, and maximum. This is specified by checking the boxes next to various types of summarizations. Click the OK button. Then click Next and enter the name of the newly created query. Finish by saving and running the query. The query results are displayed in datasheet view.

SQL Server Data Dictionary

In SQL Server, the data dictionary is a collection of database tables used to store information about the definition of a database. Tables, indexes, columns, datatypes, and views are examples of database objects described in the dictionary. SQL Server executes queries using the data dictionary, which is automatically updated whenever objects are added, removed, or changed in the database.

SQL Server verifies SQL statements using the database dictionary. When you run a SQL statement, The DBMS (Database Management System) parses it and determines whether the tables and fields you're referring to are correct. It uses the data dictionary to accomplish this quickly.

Data Source

Data Source is the the name given to the link established from a server to a database. When writing a query to a database, the name is frequently used. The database filename and the data source name (DSN) do not have to be the same. When running a query, The database would be referred to as DSN school.

Query Results Data Source (QRDS)

Using the Query Results Data Source, you can run queries against the results of your other Data Sources (QRDS). It can be used to join data from multiple databases, as well as for post-processing. As a result, queries against large result sets may fail if Redash runs out of memory.

Example of SQL Query

     hair_color = "red"



Common Mistakes

  • NULLs and the NOT IN predicate.
  • Functions on indexed columns in predicates.
  • Incorrect subquery column.
  • Data type mismatch in predicates.
  • Predicate evaluation order.
  • Predicate placement and outer joins.
  • Subqueries that return multiple values.
  • Use of SELECT * to consider all the data available in the table.

Context & Applications

This topic is significant in the professional exams for both undergraduate and graduate courses, especially for  

  • Bachelor of Science in Computer Science 
  • Master of Science in Computer Science 
  • Bachelors of Engineering in Computer Science 
  • Masters of Engineering in Computer Science 
  • Database Management System
  • Web Serach Query
  • Oracle SQL

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