An Introduction to Management Styles

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Unit 4001 - An Introduction to Management Styles

1. Be able to understand assumptions about human nature and managerial behaviour.
1.1 Identify models which make suppositions about human nature and behaviour at work
Theory X and Theory Y represent two sets of assumptions about human nature and human behaviour that are relevant to the practice of management. They describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation. Theory X represents a negative view on of human nature that assumes individuals generally dislike work, are irresponsible, and require close supervision to do their jobs. Theory Y represents a positive view of human nature and assumes individuals are generally hard-working, creative, and able to take on responsibility
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7. The average human being is inherently self-centred and indifferent to organisational objectives.
8. The average human being by nature resists change.
9. The average human being is gullible and not very bright.
Theory Y views human beings in optimistic or positive terms. The assumptions of this theory are:
1. The average human being does not inherently dislike work.
2. Employees will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to objectives. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means to make employees to work towards objectives.
3. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.
4. The average human being can be motivated by higher level needs i.e. esteem and self-actualisation needs.
5. The average human being learns not only to accept but to seek responsibility.
6. The average human being seeks responsibility because it allows them to satisfy higher-level needs.
7. The capacity to exercise imagination and creativity in the solution of problems is widely spread throughout the population.
Theory Y suggests or contributes the following thoughts :
(i) Management is responsible for organising the resources of the company to achieve organisational objectives.
(ii) Employees are not lazy or passive or resistant to organisational objectives.
(iii) Work is natural to employees if managers can release and channel the employees’

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