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Essay On Prevalence Of Human Papillomavirus, Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer

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Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus –associated oropharyngeal cancer.

Abstract
Introduction
Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) is type of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that occurs in the oropharynx and in other parts of the oral cavity, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, or oesophagus at the same time. OPSCC is one of the most common cancer in the globe, it has been reported that the incidence of OPSCC has increased over the past several decades in many developed countries.
Aim
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the prevalence of human papillomavirus in OPSCC in the globe significantly increased over past decades.
Methods
A systematic review was performed using NIH PubMed and all articles reported
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), recognized that HPV types 16 and 18 are carcinogenic in humans, in addition, HPV is strongly associated with the development of OPSCC. HPV-16, is believed to be the risk factors for a subset of HNSCC and the most strongly associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC). HPVs are divided into cutaneous and mucosal types, based on their tissue tropism, in addition they are divided into low- risk and higher-risk types of HPV, HPV types 6 and 11 are benign and mostly found in oral squamous papillomas and common warts, meanwhile, HPV types 16 & 18 are high-risk and integrated into the host cell of the DNA in malignant lesions. Furthermore, More than 50% of the cancers are found to harbour HPV 16 DNA, and it is considered as a hallmark of malignant transformation. (Krueger H 2010).
Interestedly, over the last few decades it has been confirmed that the high-risk HPV infection is an involving factor for HNSCC subtypes especially from the base of the tongue and the tonsillar fossa. (Hansson and Rosenquist 2005, Ragin and Taioli 2007).

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of cancers that usually begins in the squamous cells in the moist and the mucosal surfaces inside the head and the neck, this type
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