Group A Streptococcus (GAS) Essay

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Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A streptococcus (GAS), is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that most commonly causes respiratory disease, including pharyngitis or tonsillitis, as well as skin infections such as impetigo and cellulitis. The organism is transmitted via respiratory droplets or by contact with fomites, and commonly infects young children. In addition to the common clinical presentations associated with S. pyogenes, some individuals develop the postinfectious sequelae of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. Due to the severity of these medical consequences, prophylactic antibiotic use is often recommended for any patients with otherwise mild S. pyogenes infections (21).
In addition to its traditional
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Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A streptococcus (GAS), is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that most commonly causes respiratory disease, including pharyngitis or tonsillitis, as well as skin infections such as impetigo and cellulitis. The organism is transmitted via respiratory droplets or by contact with fomites, and commonly infects young children. In addition to the common clinical presentations associated with S. pyogenes, some individuals develop the postinfectious sequelae of rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. Due to the severity of these medical consequences, prophylactic antibiotic use is often recommended for any patients with otherwise mild S. pyogenes infections (21).
In addition to its traditional clinical manifestations, GAS can also cause serious invasive disease such as necrotizing fasciitis, colloquially known as the flesh-eating disease. First broadly reported during the Civil War, when it was known as gangrene, necrotizing fasciitis occurs when an individual’s subcutaneous fat and superficial fascia become rapidly necrotic. Though incidence data is limited, one study estimated that, worldwide, there are approximately 660,000 cases of invasive GAS disease per year, with 97% of those cases occurring in low-income populations (4). Many microorganisms other than GAS have been linked with necrotizing fasciitis, including Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichica coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the disease is often caused by a
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