Management cannot be simply defined, there are several different definitions, and factors influencing whether it is successful. One definition of management is “the ability to forecast and plan, to organise, to command and to co-ordinate” (Naylor 2004, p. 25). In addition, Tony Watson believes management is the ability to organize and pull things together in order to create long-term survival to the organisation (Needle 2010, p. 228). Authority can be defined as the power or right to give orders and make decisions, whereas influence is the ability to affect ideas and actions. In terms of being successful, it can be defined in terms of monetary rewards, whereas others may say it can be defined by having a positive impact on others. In this essay I will assess the idea of management, and the ways in which it can be successful, and whether influence or authority is the key determinist.
Authority is fundamental to a business structure as it provides individuals in senior positions to make decisions and give orders to employee’s orders to fulfil the requirements of the organisation (Mar, 2013). The role of any individual in a managerial position cannot be under-estimated, firms cannot forecast or execute plans without a strong authoritative manager.
The role of authority can be explained through a hierachical structure, in which the higher your position, the level of authority directly increases. Henri Fayol has completed extensive research with regards to management within
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
There are many different definitions of management. The classical authors considered the management is a role that aims to achieve effective operation, make regulations, provide directions and control resources (Whetten and Cameron, 2002). However, the newer visions focus more on management as a communication job in order to finish the work (Williams, 2010). Daft (2011) adds the coordinating others to meet the new challenges becomes a crucial task for modern management. Passage with time, the requirement of
Within my organisation there are is a hierarchy of staff. With the organisation being a school the person to lead the school would the head teacher. Even though it is the head teacher that encourages all staff and students at the school, the board of governors would ensure that the school strive to achieve the goals and objectives that are set. The person next in authority would be the assistant head teacher. Even though the position of the assistant head teacher would be below in seniority it would be fair to say that these two positions would jointly make decisions within my organisation.
When we talk about someone being in a position of authority we usually mean that they hold a certain rank or status within society or within an organisation such as the public services. There are several ways in which a person could find himself or herself in a position of authority. For example, a priest has the authority of the church while a mother or father has parental authority over children. In the uniformed public services, positions of authority come with promotion. An officer may be promoted because of certain achievements and special attributes, such as experience in the service, good character, knowledge of the job, dedication, self-discipline and the respect of one’s colleagues. If you join the uniformed public services and are placed in a position of authority, you may lawfully command team members, who recognise your authority and their duty to obey those legitimate commands. When authority is legitimate, there is no need to influence or use power. Indeed, if a senior officer were unable to gain the respect of a team member by command alone, then there would be no recognisable authority.
In every corner of a successful organisation, management and leadership has a strong connection, cannot divide one from another because both has to complement each other in many ways. Many authors and theorists argued that management is completely different skill than leadership and others just insist that leadership is a skill of a management studies in which needed to be updated with the world permanent variables of globalisation. In hard hit Journalism (Management Today, Haymarket Business Media, 2014) has contributed to expose many faults in high profile companies management and expose their lack of managerial skill.
Classifying the authority - Once the departments are made, the manager likes to classify the powers and its extent to the managers. This activity of giving a rank in order to the managerial positions is called hierarchy. The top management is into formulation of policies, the middle level management into departmental supervision and lower level management into supervision of foremen. The clarification of authority helps in bringing efficiency in the running of a concern. This helps in achieving efficiency in the running of a concern. This helps in avoiding wastage of time, money, effort, in
As Weber suggested one of the way to understanding how organizations change was to study the power and authority. In Weber’s model, there are differences between power and authority. Power means the chance that someone within a social relationship, and will be in a position to perform his own wishes that despite the obstruction. Power influences who gets what, when, and how. But what is authority? Authority was defined as the probability of certain controls or the orders which being obeyed by a group (Weber 1968 p955).
The wider the authority-power gap, it reduces the power that the subordinates perceive a manager to have (Marquis & Huston, 2012, p. 286). There are times when subordinates refuses to follow commands by the authorities due to different points of view on both sides. Especially when authority abuses their power it can repel subordinates from perceiving the authority’s legitimacy. “Sometimes subordinates feel badgered by very visible exercises of authority… because overusing command can stifle cooperation” (Marquis & Huston, 2012, p. 287). I have seen over abuse of authority at a workplace and it harms the relationship between the manager and the employees.
Authority represents the power that lies within a managerial position and that gives the manager the right to assign the jobs to his subordinates and to expect that the assigned jobs would be completed by the subordinates. By the virtue of authority, the superiors are empowered to make their juniors and subordinates work. The organizational structure should clearly define the line of authority so that the overlapping actions might be avoided (Mahida).
It is important for managers to understand the sources of power and influence as they must rely upon the cooperation of subordinates in order to be successful. Strong managers rely upon more than just authority they also use leadership skills and power to obtain the most productivity from their staff. According to French and Raven (1959) there are five sources of power. Referent power seems to be the most influential and the least affected by change. To quote Paul Argenti,
Every manager must have a set of principles, values, and core beliefs that he must follow. These principles, values, and beliefs make up his philosophy of management. Webster defines philosophy as “the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group.” (Webster) I will be discussing the principles, values, and beliefs I as a manager will have to do my job efficiently. I will also discuss the different biblical beliefs that support my management style.
In this essay, I am going to investigate how influential management differs from authoritative management and the variations in the effect they have on the performance of the staff, and thus the success (or lack of it) in both the short and long run. I will attempt to also see if there’s a relationship between those being managed in different ways furthering their skillsets and opportunities for promotions.
Authority: A good management should have the right to give orders to the staff and if the staff doesn’t obey them, then, punish them. There are two types of authority: Personal, derived from intelligence, experience and ability and formal coming from a position within the organization’s hierarchy.
In today’s ever changing economy, society’s idea of management is becoming increasingly more difficult to sustain with the continuous demands of the position. A successful manager must have a certain level of expertise and problem solving techniques to carry out the daily tasks required. Over the years, there have been various ideas on what management is, such as planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
The final function of management is leadership. “Great leaders get extraordinary things done in organisations by inspiring and motivating others towards a common purpose” (Schermerhorn et al 2011, p.316). Management is no longer just
Management is one of the most important human activities and has critical impact on life, growth, development or destruction of an organisation. In an organisation, managers with any rank or status should understand their basic duties i.e. maintaining a sustainable conductive environment where people can fulfil their commitments and objectives through collaborative approach. (Akhtar, 2011) A manager is responsible to achieve the business’s goals, visions and objectives by planning, organising, leading and controlling. Dubrin (1994) stated that in every organisation each member of staff must plan, organise, make decisions, and control the resources they need to accomplish the results expected