Present Wireless Scenario Consists Of Homogeneous Network And Heterogeneous Networks

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Present wireless scenario consists of homogeneous network and heterogeneous networks. In homogeneous network each base station has similar transmit power level, antenna pattern, receiver noise floor and similar backhaul connectivity. But this type of network has disadvantage of coverage hole. In heterogeneous network the macro BSs is collocated with micro, pico and femto cells. This arrangement increases overall spectral efficiency per unit area (capacity) of the network. Whereas small cell like micro, pico, femto and relays are used to avoid coverage hole and to provide mobility to the users. Not only this relays can be used to provide backhaul connectivity, where wire line link is not possible or are expensive to deploy. As determined by the information theoretic capacity limits, current cellular systems have evolved to a point where a system with one BS achieves near optimal performance. Researchers are now moving towards more advanced heterogeneous network topology which will bring the network more closely to the mobile user leading to further capacity gains [46-49]. HetNets will significantly improve the spectral efficiency per unit area by utilizing a diverse set of BSs. 1.4 Elements of Heterogeneous Network Heterogeneous deployment need to use innovative cell association and inter-celling interference coordination techniques in order to realize the promised capacity and coverage gains. A typical heterogeneous wireless technology as shown in figure 1.4 has the

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