BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 2, Problem 122E
Textbook Problem
232 views

In the second row of the periodic table, Be, N, and Ne all have positive (unfavorable) electron affinities, whereas the other second-row elements have negative (favorable) electron affinities. Rationalize why Be, N, and Ne have unfavorable electron affinities.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It has to be rationalized that the elements Be,N and Ne do not have favorable electron affinity like other second-row elements.

Concept Introduction:

The total amount of energy that is spent or released on the addition of an electron to a neutral atom or a neutral molecule present in the gaseous state for the formation of a negative ion is known as the electron affinity.

To determine: Justification of the unfavorable electron affinities occurring in Be,N and Ne .

Explanation of Solution

To determine: Justification of the unfavorable electron affinities occurring in Be .

The electronic configuration of Be is 1s22s2 . The addition of an electron to this would form Be . This added electron occupies the fully filled 2s orbital. So, energy needs to be supplied to the Be atom in order to overcome the repulsions between the electrons. Therefore, electron affinity of Be is endothermic.

Be is more stable in its elemental form due to its completely filled electronic configuration. The addition of an electron to it leads to the formation of unstable Be ion. Therefore, unfavorable electron affinity is possessed by this atom.

To determine: Justification of the unfavorable electron affinities occurring in N .

The electronic configuration of N is 1s22s22p3 . The addition of an electron to this would form N . This added electron occupies the half-filled 2p orbital

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 2 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
Show all chapter solutions
add
Ch. 2 - What does it mean for something to have wavelike...Ch. 2 - Defend and criticize Bohrs model. Why was it...Ch. 2 - The first four ionization energies for the...Ch. 2 - Compare the first ionization energy of helium to...Ch. 2 - Which has the larger second ionization energy,...Ch. 2 - Explain why a graph of ionization energy versus...Ch. 2 - Without referring to your text, predict the trend...Ch. 2 - Account for the fact that the line that separates...Ch. 2 - Explain electron from a quantum mechanical...Ch. 2 - Choose the best response for the following. The...Ch. 2 - Consider the following statement "The ionization...Ch. 2 - In going across a row of the periodic table,...Ch. 2 - How does probability fit into the description of...Ch. 2 - What is meant by an orbital?Ch. 2 - Explain the difference between the probability...Ch. 2 - Is the following statement true or false? The...Ch. 2 - Which is higher in energy, the 2s or 2p orbital,...Ch. 2 - Prove mathematically that it is more energetically...Ch. 2 - What type of relationship (direct or inverse) e...Ch. 2 - What do we mean by the frequency of...Ch. 2 - Explain the photoelectric effectCh. 2 - Describe briefly why the study of electromagnetic...Ch. 2 - How does the wavelength of a fast-pitched baseball...Ch. 2 - The following is an energy-level diagram for...Ch. 2 - The Bohr model works for only one electron...Ch. 2 - We can represent both probability and radial...Ch. 2 - Consider the representations of the p and d atomic...Ch. 2 - The periodic table consists of four blocks of...Ch. 2 - Many times the claim is made that subshells...Ch. 2 - Diagonal relationships in the periodic table exist...Ch. 2 - Elements with very large ionization energies also...Ch. 2 - The changes in electron affinity as one goes down...Ch. 2 - Why is it much harder to explain the line spectra...Ch. 2 - Scientists use emission spectra to confirm the...Ch. 2 - Does the minimization of electron-electron...Ch. 2 - In the hydtogen atom, what is the physical...Ch. 2 - The work function is the energy required to remove...Ch. 2 - Many more anhydrous lithium salts are hygroscopic...Ch. 2 - The laser in an audio CD player uses light with a...Ch. 2 - An FM radio station broadcasts at 99.5 MHz....Ch. 2 - Microwave radiation has a wavelength on the order...Ch. 2 - A photon of ultraviolet (UV) light possesses...Ch. 2 - Octyl methoxycinoamate and oxybenzone are common...Ch. 2 - Human color vision is " produced" by the nervous...Ch. 2 - Consider the following waves representing...Ch. 2 - One type of electromagnetic radiation has a...Ch. 2 - Carbon absorbs energy at a wavelength of 150. nm....Ch. 2 - X rays have wavelengths on the order of 1 1010 m....Ch. 2 - The work function of an element is the energy...Ch. 2 - It takes 208.4 kJ of energy to remove 1 mole of...Ch. 2 - It takes 7.21 1019 J of energy to remove an...Ch. 2 - Ionization energy is the energy required to remove...Ch. 2 - Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for each of...Ch. 2 - Neutron diffraction is used in determining the...Ch. 2 - A particle has a velocity that is 90.% of the...Ch. 2 - Calculate the velocities of electrons with de...Ch. 2 - Calculate the wavelength of light emiued when each...Ch. 2 - Calculate the wavelength of light emitted when...Ch. 2 - Using vertical lines, indicate the transitions...Ch. 2 - Using vertical lines, indicate the transitions...Ch. 2 - Calculate the longest and shortest wavelengths of...Ch. 2 - Assume that a hydrogen atoms electron has been...Ch. 2 - Does a photon of visible light ( 400 to 700 nm)...Ch. 2 - An electron is excited from the n = 1 ground state...Ch. 2 - Calculate the maximum wavelength of light capable...Ch. 2 - Consider an electron for a hydrogen atom in an...Ch. 2 - An excited hydrogen atom with an electron in the n...Ch. 2 - An excited hydrogen atom emits light with a...Ch. 2 - Using the Heisenberg uncertainty principle,...Ch. 2 - The Heisenberg uncertainty principle can be...Ch. 2 - What are the possible values for the quantum...Ch. 2 - Identify each of the following orbitals and...Ch. 2 - Which of the following sets of quantum numbers are...Ch. 2 - Which of the following sets of quantum numbers are...Ch. 2 - What is the physical significance of the value of...Ch. 2 - In defining the sizes of orbitals, why must we use...Ch. 2 - Total radial probability distributions for the...Ch. 2 - Tbe relative orbital levels for the hydrogen atom...Ch. 2 - How many orbitals in an atom can have the...Ch. 2 - How many electrons in an atom can have the...Ch. 2 - Give the maximum number of electrons in an atom...Ch. 2 - Give the maximum number of electrons in an atom...Ch. 2 - Draw atomic orbital diagrams representing the...Ch. 2 - For elements l36, there are two exceptions to the...Ch. 2 - The elements Si, Ga, As, Ge, Al, Cd, S, and Se are...Ch. 2 - The elements Cu, O, La, Y, Ba, Tl, and Bi are all...Ch. 2 - Write the expected electron configurations for...Ch. 2 - Write the expected electron configurations for...Ch. 2 - The four most abundant elements by mass in the...Ch. 2 - The first-row transition metals from chromium...Ch. 2 - Write the expected ground-state electron...Ch. 2 - Using only the periodic table inside the front...Ch. 2 - Given the valence electron orbital level diagram...Ch. 2 - Identify the following elements. a. An excited...Ch. 2 - In the ground state of mercury, Hg, a. how many...Ch. 2 - In the ground state of element 115, Uup, a. how...Ch. 2 - Give a possible set of values of the four quantum...Ch. 2 - Give a possible set of values of the four quantum...Ch. 2 - Valence electrons are those electrons in the...Ch. 2 - How many valence electrons do each of the...Ch. 2 - A certain oxygen atom has the electron...Ch. 2 - Which of the following electron configurations...Ch. 2 - Which of elements 1-36 have two unpaired electrons...Ch. 2 - Which of elements 1-36 have one unpaired electron...Ch. 2 - One bit of evidence that the quantum mechanical...Ch. 2 - Identify how many unpaired electrons are present...Ch. 2 - Arrange the following groups of atoms in order of...Ch. 2 - Arrange the following groups of atoms in order of...Ch. 2 - Arrange the atoms in Exercise 107 in order of...Ch. 2 - Arrange the atoms in Exercise 108 in order of...Ch. 2 - In each of the following sets, which atom or ion...Ch. 2 - In each of the following sets, which atom or ion...Ch. 2 - Element 106 has been named seaborgium, Sg, in...Ch. 2 - The first ionization energies of As and Se are...Ch. 2 - Rank the elements Be, B, C, N, and O in order of...Ch. 2 - Consider the following ionization energies for...Ch. 2 - The following graph plots the first, second, and...Ch. 2 - For each of the following pairs of elements (C and...Ch. 2 - For each of the following pairs of elements (Mg...Ch. 2 - The electron affinities of the elements from...Ch. 2 - In the second row of the periodic table, Be, N,...Ch. 2 - Order the atoms in each of the following sets from...Ch. 2 - Order the atoms in each of the following sets from...Ch. 2 - The electron affinity for sulfur is more negative...Ch. 2 - Which has the more negative electron affinity, the...Ch. 2 - Write equations corresponding to the following: a....Ch. 2 - Using data from the text, determine the following...Ch. 2 - Cesium was discovered in natural mineral waters in...Ch. 2 - 'The bright yellow light emitted by a sodium vapor...Ch. 2 - Does the information on alkali metals in Table 2-8...Ch. 2 - Predict the atomic number of the next alkali metal...Ch. 2 - Complete and balance the equations for the...Ch. 2 - Complete and balance the equations for the...Ch. 2 - "Lithium" is often prescribed as a...Ch. 2 - A carbon-oxygen double bond in a certain organic...Ch. 2 - Mars is roughly 60 million km from the earth. How...Ch. 2 - Consider the following approximate visible light...Ch. 2 - One of the visible lines in the hydrogen emission...Ch. 2 - Using Fig. 2-30, list the elements (ignore the...Ch. 2 - Are the following statements true for the hydrogen...Ch. 2 - Although no currently known elements contain...Ch. 2 - The four most abundant elements by mass in the...Ch. 2 - Which of the following orbital designations are...Ch. 2 - The successive ionization energies for an unknown...Ch. 2 - An unknown element is a nonmetal and has a valence...Ch. 2 - While Mendeleev predicted the existence of several...Ch. 2 - Photosynthesis uses 660-nm light to convert CO2...Ch. 2 - Photogray lenses incorporate small amounts of...Ch. 2 - It takes 476 kJ to remove 1 mole of electrons from...Ch. 2 - Calculate, to four significant figures, the...Ch. 2 - Assume that a hydrogen atoms electron bas been...Ch. 2 - Determine the maximum number of electrons that can...Ch. 2 - Consider the ground state of arsenic, As. How many...Ch. 2 - Which of the following statements is(are) true? a....Ch. 2 - Identify the following three elements. a. The...Ch. 2 - For each of the following pairs of elements,...Ch. 2 - Which of the following statements is(are) true? a....Ch. 2 - Three elements have the electron configurations...Ch. 2 - One of the emission spectral lines for Be3+ has a...Ch. 2 - The figure below represents part of the emission...Ch. 2 - When lhe excited electron in a hydrogen atom falls...Ch. 2 - The ground state ionization energy for the...Ch. 2 - For hydrogen atoms, the wave function for the...Ch. 2 - The wave function for the 2pz, orbital in the...Ch. 2 - Answer the following questions, assuming that ms,...Ch. 2 - Assume that we are in another universe with...Ch. 2 - Without looking at data in the text, sketch a...Ch. 2 - The following numbers are the ratios of second...Ch. 2 - We expect the atomic radius to increase going down...Ch. 2 - The ionization energy for a 1s electron in a...Ch. 2 - Answer the following questions based on the given...Ch. 2 - As the weapons officer aboard the Srarship...

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
What is the name of the element in Group 4A and Period 5?

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

The polysaccharide that helps form the supporting structures of plants is cellulose maltose glycogen sucrose

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Define homeostasis.

Human Biology (MindTap Course List)

A 0.300-kg puck, initially at rest on a horizontal, frictionless surface, is struck by a 0.200-kg puck moving i...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)