   Chapter 25, Problem 56PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Some of the reactions explored by Ernest Rutherford (pages 67 and 1166) and others are listed below. Identify the unknown species in each reaction.(a) N 7 14  +  H 2 4 e →   O 8 17  + ? (b) B 4 9 e +  H 2 4 e →  ? +  n 0 1 (c) ?  +  H 2 4 e →   P 15 30   + n 0 1 (d) P 94 239 u +  H 2 4 e →   ?   + n 0 1

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Symbol, atomic number, and mass number for the nuclear reactions has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

In this radioactive decay process the unstable isotopes loses their energy by emitting radiation. It is converted in to stable isotopes. The emitting radiations are positron emission, gamma emission, beta emission and electron capture.

Balancing nuclear reaction equation: The balanced nuclear reaction should conserve both mass number and atomic number.

• The sum of the mass numbers of the reactants should be equal to the sum of mass numbers of the products in the reaction.
• The sum of atomic numbers (or the atomic charge) of the reactants should be equal to the sum of atomic numbers (or the atomic charge) of the products in the reaction.
Explanation

The radioactive isotope of Nitrogen-14 is transmitted in to Oxygen-17 by releasing a proton in the process. In this series Nitrogen-14 is unstable isotope and it has a 7 atomic number and 14- mass number. The Oxygen-17 is a stable isotope and it has atomic number-8 and mass number-17. The equation shows that nitrogen is bombarded by an alpha particle, by releasing a proton (hydrogen nucleus, that is, a hydrogen atom with no electron). The proton carries a positive charge equal in magnitude to the charge on an electron.

The remaining particle of the nuclear reaction is hydrogen nucleus with no electron...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Symbol, atomic number, and mass number for the nuclear reactions has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

In this radioactive decay process the unstable isotopes loses their energy by emitting radiation. It is converted in to stable isotopes. The emitting radiations are positron emission, gamma emission, beta emission and electron capture.

Balancing nuclear reaction equation: The balanced nuclear reaction should conserve both mass number and atomic number.

• The sum of the mass numbers of the reactants should be equal to the sum of mass numbers of the products in the reaction.
• The sum of atomic numbers (or the atomic charge) of the reactants should be equal to the sum of atomic numbers (or the atomic charge) of the products in the reaction.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Symbol, atomic number, and mass number for the nuclear reactions has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

In this radioactive decay process the unstable isotopes loses their energy by emitting radiation. It is converted in to stable isotopes. The emitting radiations are positron emission, gamma emission, beta emission and electron capture.

Balancing nuclear reaction equation: The balanced nuclear reaction should conserve both mass number and atomic number.

• The sum of the mass numbers of the reactants should be equal to the sum of mass numbers of the products in the reaction.
• The sum of atomic numbers (or the atomic charge) of the reactants should be equal to the sum of atomic numbers (or the atomic charge) of the products in the reaction.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Symbol, atomic number, and mass number for the nuclear reactions has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

In this radioactive decay process the unstable isotopes loses their energy by emitting radiation. It is converted in to stable isotopes. The emitting radiations are positron emission, gamma emission, beta emission and electron capture.

Balancing nuclear reaction equation: The balanced nuclear reaction should conserve both mass number and atomic number.

• The sum of the mass numbers of the reactants should be equal to the sum of mass numbers of the products in the reaction.
• The sum of atomic numbers (or the atomic charge) of the reactants should be equal to the sum of atomic numbers (or the atomic charge) of the products in the reaction.

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