Fox and McDonald's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
Fox and McDonald's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
9th Edition
ISBN: 9781118912652
Author: Philip J. Pritchard, John W. Mitchell
Publisher: WILEY

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Textbook Question
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Chapter 4, Problem 1P

An ice-cube tray containing 250 mL of freshwater at 15°C is placed in a freezer at −5°C. Determine the change in internal energy (kJ) and entropy (kJ/K) of the water when it has frozen.

Expert Solution & Answer
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To determine

The change in internal energy and entropy of the water.

Explanation of Solution


The volume of the water (V) is 250 ml.

The temperature of the water (T1) is 15°C.

The temperature of the freezer (T2) is 5°C.


Consider the density of the water (ρ) is 999kg/m3 and the specific heat at constant volume (cP) is 1 kcalkgK.

Calculate the change in entropy (ΔS).

  ΔS=m(s2s1)ΔS=ρVcvln(T2T1)=999kg/m3×(250ml)×1 kcalkgK×ln(5°C15°C)=999kg/m3×(250ml)×1 kcalkgK×ln(268 K288 K)=0.01797kcalkg×4190 J1 kcal=75.32 J/K=0.0753 kJ/K

Thus, the change in entropy is (Δs) is 0.0753 kJ/K_.

Calculate the change in internal energy (ΔU).

  ΔU=mcv(T2T1)ΔU=ρVcv(T2T1)=999kg/m3×(250ml×106m31ml)×1 kcalkgK×(5°C15°C)=999kg/m3×(250×106m3)×kcalkgK×(268 K288 K)=4.995kcalkg×4190 J1 kcal=20929.05 J/K=20.929 kJ/K

Thus, the change in internal energy is (Δs) is 20.929 kJ/K_.

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Chapter 4 Solutions

Fox and McDonald's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

Ch. 4 - The area shown shaded is in a flow where the...Ch. 4 - Obtain an expression for the kinetic energy flux,...Ch. 4 - A 0.3 m by 0.5 m rectangular air duct carries a...Ch. 4 - Across a shock wave in a gas flow there is a great...Ch. 4 - Water flows in a pipeline composed of 75-mm and...Ch. 4 - The velocity distribution for laminar flow in a...Ch. 4 - A farmer is spraying a liquid through 10 nozzles,...Ch. 4 - A university laboratory that generates 15 m3/s of...Ch. 4 - Hydrogen is being pumped through a pipe system...Ch. 4 - Calculate the mean velocities for these...Ch. 4 - If the velocity profile in a passage of width 2R...Ch. 4 - Fluid with 1040 kg/m3 density is flowing steadily...Ch. 4 - A rice farmer needs to fill a 150 m 400 m field...Ch. 4 - In your kitchen, the sink is 60 cm by 45.7 cm. by...Ch. 4 - Fluid passes through this set of thin closely...Ch. 4 - A pipeline 0.3 m in diameter divides at a Y into...Ch. 4 - A manifold pipe of 3 in. diameter has four...Ch. 4 - You are trying to pump storm water out of your...Ch. 4 - In the incompressible flow through the device...Ch. 4 - Water enters a wide, flat channel of height 2h...Ch. 4 - Find the average efflux velocity V if the flow...Ch. 4 - Find V for this mushroom cap on a pipeline. 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