Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Explain how inhalation and exhalation occur in a mammal at rest.

Summary Introduction

To review:

The process of exhalation and inhalation in a mammal at resting state.


Respiration is a vital life process by which living organisms are allowed to respire, in order to get maximum of oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide. The primary organs in human beings are lungs, through which respiration takes place by the process of negative pressure breathing. The human respiration system is more complex in terrestrial animals.


In humans, the respiration process starts with mouth and nostrils that entrap air inside it. There are hairs present in the nostril, whose function is to trap dust materials and then the air is warm and moist and moves through the mouth and nasal passage. Then, the air moves into the throat, which is known as pharynx that forms a common pathway for passing air into larynx, also known as voice box. When air enters, larynx is always open except when we engulf food inside it.

After passing from larynx, air passes to trachea where it consists of the bronchi and the bronchioles. Bronchi are the narrow, thin, and cone shaped lungs that are present at each side of the chest cavity, whereas the bronchioles are cup shaped pockets that include alveoli that is surrounded by thin blood capillaries.

The larynx, bronchi, and trachea are enclosed by the rings of cartilage for the protection of tubes by mechanical means, and their walls are made up of smooth muscles that help them in contraction and relaxation. When the air comes to alveoli, it gets moist and boughs to body temperature and provide large area for exchange of gases...

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